Marcia C. Shannon University of Missouri

Resources Authored

Factsheets

Understanding the Nutrient Recommendations in the National Swine Nutrition Guide

Publish Date: 03/25/2010

Pigs require energy (from carbohydrates, lipids and protein), amino acids, minerals, vitamins and water for body maintenance, growth, pregnancy, and lactation. Each of these essential nutrients must be provided in adequate amounts and in forms that are palatable and efficiently utilized throughout the life-cycle of the pig in order for it to maximize genetic potential.…


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Factsheets

Protein and Amino Acid Sources for Swine Diets

Publish Date: 03/25/2010

Pigs of all ages and stages of the life cycle require amino acids to enable them for normal body function. Amino acids are the structural units of protein. During digestion, dietary protein is broken down into amino acids and peptides (more than one amino acid linked together). The amino acids and peptides are then absorbed into the body and are used to build new proteins, such as muscle, which is composed of about 21 different amino acids. Thus, pigs require amino acids, not crude protein. Diets must be balanced with respect to a desirable level and ratio of the 10 essential amino acids; they must also contain adequate amounts of amino acids required by pigs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and lactation. Those 10 essential amino acids for swine are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Two other amino acids (cysteine and tyrosine) are semi-essential since both can be synthesized if adequate amounts of methionine and phenylalanine are present for cysteine and tyrosine, respectively. The other nine amino acids (aspartic acid, asparagines, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, alanine, proline, hydroxyproline and serine) are considered nonessential because they can be synthesized at sufficient rates if an adequate amount of non-specific protein is present in the diet. [3, 9, 10, 11]


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Resources Reviewed

PIG How-To's

Managing Human Resources - Team Building

Publish Date: 04/17/2012

Team building is a constant process that helps work groups evolve into an organized unit. The team members not only share expectations for accomplishing group tasks, but trust and support one another and respect one another's individual differences. The managers role as a team builder is to lead employee teams toward cohesiveness and productivity. With good team-building skills, managers can unite employees around a common goal and generate greater productivity.


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PIG How-To's

How To Develop a Biosecurity Plan

Publish Date: 04/17/2012

Many diseases that negatively affect a herd are carried into the farm through fomites (items that can carry a disease organism), introduction of infected pigs, contaminated supplies, trucking and even via aerosol spread (through the air). For example on the financial impact of a disease, the introduction of the Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive virus (PRRSv) costs producers upwards of $560 million dollars due to disease related production losses. However, PRRSv is not the only disease that can cause significant production losses. Disease prevention can be achieved by having an effective biosecurity plan outlined for all aspects of farm operations.


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Factsheets

Macro Minerals for Swine Diets

Publish Date: 03/25/2010

Minerals constitute a small percentage of swine diets, but their importance to growth, health, and productivity of the pig cannot be over-emphasized. Swine require 15 minerals in their diet and macro-minerals are the minerals that swine need in larger quantities, usually described for inclusion in percent of the diet. The macro-minerals are: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, and sulfur. About 5 percent of the total body weight of swine consists of minerals. Although these minerals are indigenous in most feed grains, some are at low concentrations in feedstuffs commonly used in swine diets. Consequently, it is essential that the diet be balanced using supplemental mineral sources. Minerals are essential for most of the basic metabolic reactions in the body and are an important factor in growth, reproduction, and resistance to diseases. They have a role in digestion; metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates; and the structure of chromosomes, enzymes, nerves, blood, skeleton, hair and milk.


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Factsheets

Example Diets for Swine

Publish Date: 03/25/2010

The ability to properly formulate diets to achieve production goals and optimize profitability is essential for the success of any pork production operation. Swine diets are increasingly more complex with the emergence of improved nutritional technologies and greater availability and use of alternative feed ingredients. This factsheet is intended to teach key practical concepts and principles of swine nutrition and diet formulation through the presentation of diets made for various classes of swine.


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