Factsheets

National Swine Nutrition Guide tables on nutrient recommendations, ingredient composition, and use rates

Swine nutrition and feeding management is a complex process. Feed is the largest single item among the costs of producing pork, historically accounting for about 60% of all costs in farrow-to-finish systems. Pork producers are encouraged to employ a comprehensive feeding program based on sound principles and tailored to the operation. The National Swine Nutrition Guide (NSNG), which includes the Diet Formulation and Evaluation CD to allow direct application of its contents to practical feeding situations, provides the basis for the development and management of such swine feeding programs.

 


 

The purpose of the NSNG is to enhance the understanding of basic nutrition, feeding principles and related management practices and to serve as a reference for pork producers, students, educators and allied industry personnel. Users of the NSNG will be able to estimate the nutritional needs of pigs by considering specific factors that affect nutrient recommendations.

 

The NSNG consists of 35 factsheets and the Diet Formulator CD. For those seeking only nutrient recommendations for various classes of swine and ingredient composition and use rates, we prepared this summary. More details regarding nutrient recommendations, ingredient composition, formulating diets, and feeding program management are presented in the factsheets and on the Diet Formulator CD.

 

General explanation of nutrient recommendations

 

Nutrient requirements established by the 1998 National Research Council (NRC) and research results published since then were used as the basis for nutrient recommendations in the NSNG. Values published by the NRC do not include any intentional surpluses; they are the committee’s best estimates of minimum requirements for nutrients. Those requirements are based on pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets under experimental conditions that normally provide ideal growing conditions. In commercial production situations, a margin of safety is added to the published nutrient requirements; in the NSNG those levels are referred to as “recommendations”. A margin of safety was applied to each nutrient in order to establish a recommendation for that nutrient in the NSNG. Margins of safety are necessary to account for any number of factors that affect nutrient needs (see PIG Factsheet # 07-01-07, Factors Affecting Nutrient Requirements) and variability in nutrient composition and in nutrient bioavailability of feed ingredients (see PIG factsheet #07-07-09, Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets). Nutrient cost and environmental issues surrounding nutrient excretion were also considered when determining safety margins.

 

Nutrient recommendations in the NSNG were established according to predetermined pig performance standards; for example, daily weight gain, feed intake, carcass lean gain, litter size and litter weaning weight. Those standards accompany the nutrient recommendations in the NSNG to provide transparency and to allow individuals to tailor recommendations to specific situations.

 

The nutrient recommendations presented herein should result in a “best cost” feeding strategy for most pork producers the majority of the time. However, certain conditions (i.e., specific genetic populations, economics, environmental conditions, nutrient availability, nutrient profile, and nutrient interactions) may exist that require significant deviations from the recommendations presented.

 

Although crude protein values still appear on feed labels and in some feeding recommendations, we did not list dietary protein recommendations because pigs do not require protein in their diet. Instead they require amino acids, which are found in protein. Recommended levels for six of the most critical amino acids are provided in Tables 1 to 10. Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in grain soybean meal based diets. Lysine recommendations are provided on a total and a standardized ileal digestible (SID) basis. Recommendations for total lysine are applicable to corn-soybean meal based diets only. Formulating diets on a SID basis allows one to account for differences in the usable amino acids present in the diet and more closely meets the pig’s amino acid needs while minimizing excess nitrogen excretion.

 

The recommendations for threonine, methionine, methionine+cysteine, tryptophan, isoleucine and valine are also expressed on an SID basis. These recommendations were derived from an optimal pattern or ratio among amino acids that we established (see PIG Factsheet # 07-02-03, Understanding Swine Nutrient Recommendations).

 

Recommendations for phosphorus are expressed on a total, available and digestible basis. Like amino acids, a certain proportion of the phosphorus in a feedstuff cannot be utilized by pigs. In order to more closely meet the pig’s phosphorus requirements while minimizing phosphorus excretion, swine diets should be formulated on an available or digestible phosphorus basis. The total phosphorus recommendations presented in this factsheet should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be obtained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible basis. Also, the total phosphorus recommendations in this factsheet will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet.

 

Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations are expressed both as percentage of the total content of the diet and amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy concentration. When expressing nutrient recommendations on a percentage of the diet basis, dietary energy density or feed intake must be considered. Otherwise, it is likely that the animal’s nutrient needs will not be met as intended. Expressing nutrient recommendations relative to dietary energy ensures nutrient concentrations are altered in accordance to changes in dietary energy density, for example when fat is added to the diet.

 

Recommendations for trace mineral and vitamin additions to swine diets are shown in Table 11. The values represent our best estimate of trace mineral and vitamin needs of pigs in practical situations. These values are based on NRC requirements to which a safety margin has been added. While there are vitamins and trace minerals in grain and protein sources, it is necessary to fortify swine diets with additional quantities of several vitamins and trace minerals to ensure deficiencies do not occur.

 

Information gaps exist in trace mineral and vitamin nutrition of pigs, making it difficult to establish firm recommendations. Therefore, we feel it is important to offer feed manufacturers and producers some flexibility in preparing and utilizing products based on our recommendations. Thus, we established ranges for recommended additions of salt, trace mineral and vitamin additions to swine diets (see PIG Factsheet #07- 02-06, Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets).

 

Tables 12 to 15 contain nutritional information for the manufacturing of basemixes and premixes for swine diets. The recommended trace mineral and vitamin additions shown in Table 11 are met or exceeded with the trace mineral premix and three vitamin premixes shown.

 

1 This booklet of tables was compiled to provide users with a quick reference to all the tables from the National Swine Nutrition Guide (NSNG). The NSNG is a perfect example of collaboration made possible by the US Pork Center of Excellence (USPCE) which has as its mission to add value to the pork industry by facilitating research and learning for U.S. pork producers through national collaboration. The steering committee can be very proud of this work. This tables booklet, the NSNG book and the Diet Formulation and Evaluation CD will be widely accepted and utilized by the pork industries in the US and, indeed, around the world. This national collaboration could only be possible with the input, writing, reviewing, commitment and a lot of hard work by several people including many academic and industry swine nutritionists. I have attempted to list all of these individuals who have contributed so much of their time to make this effort a success. The Steering Committee would like to extend a special thank you to Katie Beeler, communications specialist with the US Pork Center of Excellence, for all her hard work in staffing the Committee and in formatting all the fact sheets for publication.

 

David J. Meisinger
Executive Director
US Pork Center of Excellence

 

Steering Committee

 

Duane Reese, University of Nebraska (Chair of Development) Bob Thaler, South Dakota State University (Chair of Outreach) Brian Richert, Purdue University (PIG Swine Nutrition Domain Leader) Scott Carter, Oklahoma State University Garland Dahlke, Iowa State University Joel DeRouchey, Kansas State University John Patience, Iowa State University Marcia Carlson Shannon, University of Missouri Hans Stein, University of Illinois Eric van Heugten, North Carolina State University Mark Whitney, University of Minnesota Charlotte Kirk Baer, USDA/NIFA ex-officio

 

Authors

All of the Steering Committee members were involved as authors of NSNG fact sheets. In addition, the following individuals also contributed as authors or co-authors on several papers:

Gary Allee, University of Missouri
Jason Apple, University of Arkansas
Justin Benz, Kansas State University
Gary Cromwell, University of Kentucky
Steve Dritz, Kansas State University
Bob Goodband, Kansas State University
Lee Johnston, University of Minnesota
Claire Masker, Iowa Corn Growers Association
Gretchen Myers Hill, Michigan State University
Jim Nelssen, Kansas State University
Allan Schinckel, Purdue University
Jerry Shurson, University of Minnesota
Alan Sutton, Purdue University
Ken Stalder, Iowa State University
Mike Tokach, Kansas State University
Theo van Kempen, Provimi

 

Reviewers

 

All of the Steering Committee members provided critical reviews of the fact sheets for the NSNG. In addition, many other academicians and industry representatives assisted with input, modifications and helpful advice in their critical reviews. They are listed as follows:

Samuel Baidoo, University of Minnesota
Eric Berg, North Dakota State University
Bart Borg, Murphy Brown LLC R.
Dean Boyd, The Hanor Company
Mike Brumm, Brumm Consulting
Tom Burkey, University of Nebraska
Wayne Cast, Production Input Solutions
Donnie Campbell, DSM Nutritional Products
Kevin Cera, Akey Joe Crenshaw, APC Functional Proteins
Mark Crenshaw, Mississippi State University
Tommy Crenshaw, University of Wisconsin
Dustin Dean, International Ingredients Corp.
Robert Dove, University of Georgia
Jerry Faber, ADM Alliance Nutrition
Tim Fakler, Kerber Milling
Jason Frank, University of Arkansas
Aaron Gaines, The Maschhoffs
John Goihl, Agri-Nutrition Services, Inc.
Bob Goodband, Kansas State University
Gene Gourley, Swine Graphics Enterprises
Ross Hamilton, Darling International
Gretchen Myers Hill, Michigan State University
Palmer Holden, Iowa State University
Chris Hostetler, South Dakota State University
Roger Johnson, Farmland Foods
Brian Kerr, USDA/ARS /SOMMRU
David Kirstein, Darling International
Don Levis, University of Nebraska
Merlin Lindemann, University of Kentucky
Dennis Liptrap, Ralco Nutrition
Leland McKinney, Kansas State University
Charles Maxwell, University of Arkansas
Terry Meyer, Land O’ Lakes Purina Feed LLC
Phil Miller, University of Nebraska
Ronny Moser, JBS United, Inc.
Rob Musser, Soda Ingredients
Betsy Newton, Akey
Rob Payne, Evonik Degussa Corporation
Scott Radcliffe, Purdue University
Dale Rozeboom, Michigan State University
Kari Sadorris, Akey
Tom Sauber, Pioneer
Wayne Schiefelbein, Elite Swine Program
Allan Schinckel, Purdue University
Jerry Shurson, University of Minnesota
Jim Smith, Hubbard Feeds
Joel Spencer, JBS United, Inc.
Charles Stark, North Carolina State University
Dave Stender, Iowa State University
Alan Sutton, Purdue University
Mike Tokach, Kansas State University
W. Randy Walker, DPI Global
Bryan Wiegand, University of Missouri
Noel Williams, PIC
Gawain Willis, Land 0’ Lakes Purina Feed LLC
Mark Wilson, Zinpro Corporation
Bob Woerman, Woerman’s Animal Nutrition Consulting LLC
Ruurd Zijlstra, University of Alberta

 

At the outset of the project, the NSNG Steering Committee queried the feed industry to obtain their input on a number of questions in a survey including their willingness to be involved in some aspect of reviewing the individual fact sheets. The response was 100% from these polled individuals. The names of these responders who provided the initial guidance for the program outline were as follows:

Bart Borg, Murphy Brown LLC
Stewart Galloway, Hubbard Feeds
Bruce Aversman, Kent Feeds
Wayne Cast, Production Input Solutions
Ken Ferrell, MFA
Chris Sparks, ADM
Wayne Schiefelbein, Elite Swine Program
Janet Snow, Exseed Genetics
Craig Maloney, Seaboard Foods
John Eggert, Monsanto
Dale Kavan, Akey
Bob Woerman, Woerman’s Animal Nutrition Consulting LLC
Neil Allen, Goldsboro Milling
John Sondermann, DanBred NA
Ronny Moser, JBS United Feeds
John Goihl, Agri-Nutrition Services
Dean Koehler, Vita Plus
David Funderburke, Cape Fear Consulting
Patrick O’Quinn, Prestage Farms
Dustin Kendall, Murphy Brown LLC
John Thompson, Wilson Milling

 

Table 1.  Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for nursery pigs (as-fed basis)a

Type of diet (Body weight, lb) Phase 1 (9-11) Phase 2 (11-15) Phase 3 (15-25) Phase 4 (25-45)
Assumed daily feed intake, lb – Assumed daily gain, lb 0.35 – 0.32 0.55 – 0.45 1.10 – 0.80 2.20 – 1.25
Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.59 1.58 1.50 1.50
% of diet
Lysine, total 1.70 1.65 1.44 1.38
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.56 1.51 1.31 1.25
Threonine 0.97 0.94 0.81 0.78
Methionine 0.44 0.42 0.37 0.35
Methionine + cysteine 0.90 0.88 0.76 0.73
Tryptophan 0.27 0.26 0.22 0.21
Isoleucine 0.86 0.83 0.72 0.69
Valine 1.01 0.98 0.85 0.81
Calcium 0.90 0.85 0.85 0.75
Phosphorus, totalc 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.65
Phosphorus, available 0.60 0.55 0.45 0.37
Phosphorus, digestible 0.57 0.53 0.40 0.33
g/Mcal MEb
Lysine, total 4.85 4.74 4.35 4.17
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 4.45 4.34 3.96 3.78
Threonine 2.77 2.70 2.45 2.36
Methionine 1.26 1.21 1.12 1.06
Methionine + cysteine 2.57 2.53 2.30 2.21
Tryptophan 0.77 0.75 0.67 0.64
Isoleucine 2.45 2.38 2.18 2.09
Valine 2.88 2.81 2.57 2.45
Calcium 2.57 2.44 2.57 2.27
Phosphorus, totalc 2.14 2.01 2.12 1.97
Phosphorus, available 1.71 1.58 1.36 1.12
Phosphorus, digestible 1.63 1.52 1.21 1.00

aAll diets are full-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-08 (Nursery Swine Nutrient Recom- mendations and Feeding Management) for more details. bRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations. cTotal phosphorus values will be reduced with increasing levels of added phytase in each diet. However, P release from phytase is reduced 30% when growth promoting levels of Zn are added.

 

Table 2. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for HIGHa lean gain lines of growing-finishing swine (as-fed basis)b

Type of diet (Body weight, lb) Phase 1 (45-90) Phase 2 (90-135) Phase 3 (135-180) Phase 4 (180-225) Phase 5 (225-270) Phase 5 + RACc (225-270) Phase 6+ RACc (270-315)
Estimated lean gain, lb/d (protein deposition, g/d) 0.70 (125) 0.76 (135) 0.87 (155) 0.84 (150) 0.76 (136) 1.01 (180) 0.91 (162)
Sexd B G B G B G B G B G B G B G
Assumed daily feed intake, lb 3.1 3.1 4.2 4.0 5.1 4.7 5.8 5.3 6.2 5.7 6.2 5.7 6.4 5.9
Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52
%
Lysine, total 1.24 1.24 1.06 1.11 0.93 1.01 0.82 0.90 0.73 0.79 0.94 1.02 0.83 0.90
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.10 1.10 0.93 0.98 0.81 0.88 0.72 0.78 0.63 0.69 0.83 0.90 0.72 0.79
Threonine 0.69 0.69 0.59 0.61 0.52 0.56 0.47 0.51 0.42 0.46 0.55 0.60 0.49 0.53
Methionine 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.28 0.24 0.26 0.21 0.23 0.19 0.21 0.25 0.27 0.22 0.24
Methionine+cysteine 0.64 0.64 0.54 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.43 0.47 0.39 0.43 0.51 0.56 0.46 0.50
Tryptophan 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.16 0.13 0.14 0.11 0.13 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.13
Isoleucine 0.60 0.60 0.51 0.54 0.45 0.49 0.39 0.43 0.35 0.38 0.45 0.49 0.40 0.43
Valine 0.71 0.71 0.60 0.63 0.53 0.57 0.47 0.51 0.41 0.45 0.54 0.58 0.47 0.51
Calcium 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52
Phosphorus, total 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52
Phosphorus, available 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.19 0.20
Phosphorus, digestible 0.33 0.33 0.27 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.24 0.19 0.20
g/Mcal MEe
Lysine, total 3.70 3.70 3.16 3.31 2.78 3.01 2.45 2.69 2.18 2.36 2.81 3.04 2.48 2.69
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 3.28 3.28 2.78 2.92 2.42 2.63 2.15 2.33 1.88 2.06 2.48 2.69 2.15 2.36
Threonine 2.06 2.06 1.76 1.82 1.55 1.67 1.40 1.52 1.25 1.37 1.64 1.79 1.46 1.58
Methionine 0.95 0.95 0.81 0.84 0.72 0.78 0.63 0.69 0.57 0.63 0.75 0.81 0.66 0.72
Methionine+cysteine 1.91 1.91 1.61 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.28 1.40 1.16 1.28 1.52 1.67 1.37 1.49
Tryptophan 0.54 0.54 0.45 0.48 0.39 0.42 0.33 0.39 0.30 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.36 0.39
Isoleucine 1.79 1.79 1.52 1.61 1.34 1.46 1.16 1.28 1.04 1.13 1.34 1.46 1.19 1.28
Valine 2.12 2.12 1.79 1.88 1.58 1.70 1.40 1.52 1.22 1.34 1.61 1.73 1.40 1.52
Calcium 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55
Phosphorus, total 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55
Phosphorus, available 0.95 0.95 0.78 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.57 0.60
Phosphorus, digestible 0.98 0.98 0.81 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.57 0.63 0.48 0.54 0.66 0.72 0.57 0.60

a>0.80 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 270 lb. bAll diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-09 (Growing-Finishing Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. cRactopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). dB = barrows and G = gilts. eRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 3. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for MEDIUMalean gain lines growing-finishing swine (as-fed basis)b

Type of diet, (Body weight, lb) Phase 1 (45-90) Phase 2 (90-135) Phase 3 (135-180) Phase 4 (180-225) Phase 5 (225-270) Phase 5 + RACc (225-270) Phase 6+ RACc (270-315)
Estimated lean gain, lb/d (protein deposition, g/d) 0.60 (107) 0.65 (116) 0.75 (133) 0.73 (129) 0.66 (117) 0.87 (155) 0.78 (139)
Sexd B G B G B G B G B G B G B G
Assumed daily feed intake, lb – Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 3.1 – 1.52 3.1 – 1.52 4.2 – 1.52 4.0 – 1.52 5.1 – 1.52 4.7 – 1.52 5.8 – 1.52 5.3 – 1.52 6.2 – 1.52 5.7 – 1.52 6.2 – 1.52 5.7 – 1.52 6.4 – 1.52 5.9 – 1.52
%
Lysine, total 1.06 1.06 0.92 0.96 0.82 0.88 0.72 0.79 0.64 0.69 0.82 0.89 0.71 0.77
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 0.93 0.93 0.80 0.84 0.71 0.77 0.62 0.68 0.55 0.59 0.71 0.78 0.61 0.67
Threonine 0.59 0.59 0.51 0.53 0.45 0.49 0.41 0.44 0.37 0.40 0.48 0.52 0.42 0.45
Methionine 0.27 0.27 0.23 0.24 0.21 0.22 0.18 0.20 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.19 0.21
Methionine+cysteine 0.54 0.54 0.47 0.49 0.43 0.46 0.37 0.41 0.34 0.37 0.44 0.48 0.39 0.42
Tryptophan 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.11
Isoleucine 0.51 0.51 0.44 0.46 0.39 0.42 0.34 0.38 0.30 0.33 0.39 0.43 0.34 0.37
Valine 0.60 0.60 0.52 0.55 0.46 0.50 0.41 0.44 0.35 0.39 0.46 0.50 0.40 0.43
Calcium 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52
Phosphorus, total 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52
Phosphorus, available 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.19 0.20
Phosphorus, digestible 0.29 0.29 0.24 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.17 0.19 0.14 0.15 0.19 0.20 0.15 0.17
g/Mcal MEe
Lysine, total 3.16 3.16 2.75 2.86 2.45 2.63 2.15 2.36 1.91 2.06 2.45 2.66 2.12 2.30
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 2.78 2.78 2.39 2.51 2.12 2.30 1.85 2.03 1.64 1.76 2.12 2.33 1.82 2.00
Threonine 1.76 1.76 1.52 1.58 1.34 1.46 1.22 1.31 1.10 1.19 1.43 1.55 1.25 1.34
Methionine 0.81 0.81 0.69 0.72 0.63 0.66 0.54 0.60 0.48 0.54 0.63 0.69 0.57 0.63
Methionine+cysteine 1.61 1.61 1.40 1.46 1.28 1.37 1.10 1.22 1.01 1.10 1.31 1.43 1.16 1.25
Tryptophan 0.45 0.45 0.39 0.39 0.33 0.36 0.30 0.33 0.27 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.30 0.33
Isoleucine 1.52 1.52 1.31 1.37 1.16 1.25 1.01 1.13 0.90 0.98 1.16 1.28 1.01 1.10
Valine 1.79 1.79 1.55 1.64 1.37 1.49 1.22 1.31 1.04 1.16 1.37 1.49 1.19 1.28
Calcium 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55
Phosphorus, total 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55
Phosphorus, available 0.95 0.95 0.78 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.57 0.60
Phosphorus, digestible 0.87 0.87 0.72 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.51 0.57 0.42 0.45 0.57 0.60 0.45 0.51

a0.65 to 0.80 lb of fat free lean/day from 45 to 270 lb. bAll diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-09 (Growing-Finishing Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. cRactopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). dB = barrows and G = gilts. eRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 4. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for LOWa lean gain lines of growing-finishing swine (as-fed basis)b

Type of diet (Body weight, lb) Phase 1 (45-90) Phase 2 (90-135) Phase 3 (135-180) Phase 4 (180-225) Phase 5 (225-270) Phase 5 + RACc (225-270) Phase 6+ RACc (270-315)
Estimated lean gain, lb/d (protein deposition, g/d) 0.50 (89) 0.55 (97) 0.62 (111) 0.60 (107) 0.55 (97) 0.72 (129) 0.65 (115)
Sexd B G B G B G B G B G B G B G
Assumed daily feed intake, lb – Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 3.1 – 1.52 3.1 – 1.52 4.2 – 1.52 4.0 – 1.52 5.1 – 1.52 4.7 – 1.52 5.8 – 1.52 5.3 – 1.52 6.2 – 1.52 5.7 – 1.52 6.2 – 1.52 5.7 – 1.52 6.4 – 1.52 5.9 – 1.52
%
Lysine, total 0.87 0.87 0.78 0.82 0.70 0.76 0.62 0.68 0.54 0.59 0.69 0.75 0.59 0.64
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 0.76 0.76 0.68 0.71 0.61 0.66 0.53 0.58 0.46 0.50 0.60 0.65 0.51 0.55
Threonine 0.48 0.48 0.43 0.45 0.39 0.42 0.35 0.38 0.31 0.34 0.40 0.44 0.34 0.37
Methionine 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.15 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.16 0.17
Methionine+cysteine 0.44 0.44 0.39 0.41 0.36 0.39 0.32 0.35 0.29 0.31 0.37 0.40 0.32 0.35
Tryptophan 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.09
Isoleucine 0.42 0.42 0.37 0.39 0.33 0.36 0.29 0.32 0.25 0.28 0.33 0.36 0.28 0.30
Valine 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.46 0.39 0.43 0.35 0.38 0.30 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.33 0.36
Calcium 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52
Phosphorus, total 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52
Phosphorus, available 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.19 0.20
Phosphorus, digestible 0.24 0.24 0.20 0.21 0.17 0.19 0.14 0.16 0.12 0.13 0.16 0.17 0.12 0.13
g/Mcal MEe
Lysine, total 2.60 2.60 2.33 2.45 2.09 2.27 1.85 2.03 1.61 1.76 2.06 2.24 1.76 1.91
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 2.27 2.27 2.03 2.12 1.82 1.97 1.58 1.73 1.37 1.49 1.79 1.94 1.52 1.64
Threonine 1.43 1.43 1.28 1.34 1.16 1.25 1.04 1.13 0.93 1.01 1.19 1.31 1.01 1.10
Methionine 0.66 0.66 0.60 0.63 0.54 0.57 0.45 0.51 0.42 0.45 0.54 0.60 0.48 0.51
Methionine+cysteine 1.31 1.31 1.16 1.22 1.07 1.16 0.95 1.04 0.87 0.93 1.10 1.19 0.95 1.04
Tryptophan 0.36 0.36 0.33 0.33 0.30 0.33 0.27 0.27 0.21 0.24 0.30 0.30 0.24 0.27
Isoleucine 1.25 1.25 1.10 1.16 0.98 1.07 0.87 0.95 0.75 0.84 0.98 1.07 0.84 0.90
Valine 1.46 1.46 1.31 1.37 1.16 1.28 1.04 1.13 0.90 0.98 1.16 1.25 0.98 1.07
Calcium 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55
Phosphorus, total 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55
Phosphorus, available 0.95 0.95 0.78 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.57 0.60
Phosphorus, digestible 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.63 0.51 0.57 0.42 0.48 0.36 0.39 0.48 0.51 0.36 0.39

a< 0.65 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 270 lb. bAll diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-09 (Growing-Finishing Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. cRactopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). dB = barrows and G = gilts. eRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 5. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for gestating swine fed higher energy diets (as-fed basis)a

  Parity 0 and 1b Parity 2 or greaterc
Litter size, total born 10.5 12.5 12 14
Assumed daily feed intake, lbd – Assumed total weight gain, lb 4.6 – 115 4.7 – 125 4.1 – 80 4.2 – 90
Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
% of diet
Lysine, total 0.68 0.70 0.58 0.60
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 0.58 0.60 0.50 0.52
Threonine 0.44 0.46 0.38 0.40
Methionine 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.14
Methionine+cysteine 0.41 0.42 0.35 0.37
Tryptophan 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.10
Isoleucine 0.33 0.34 0.29 0.30
Valine 0.40 0.41 0.34 0.36
Calcium 0.90 0.90 0.85 0.85
Phosphorus, total 0.80 0.80 0.75 0.75
Phosphorus, available 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.40
Phosphorus, digestible 0.39 0.39 0.35 0.35
g/Mcal MEe
Lysine, total 2.04 2.10 1.76 1.82
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.76 1.82 1.51 1.57
Threonine 1.34 1.38 1.15 1.19
Methionine 0.48 0.49 0.42 0.42
Methionine+cysteine 1.23 1.27 1.06 1.10
Tryptophan 0.32 0.33 0.27 0.29
Isoleucine 1.00 1.04 0.86 0.89
Valine 1.20 1.24 1.03 1.07
Calcium 2.72 2.72 2.57 2.57
Phosphorus, total 2.42 2.42 2.27 2.27
Phosphorus, available 1.36 1.36 1.21 1.21
Phosphorus, digestible 1.18 1.18 1.06 1.06
Calculated daily intake, g
Metabolizable energy, Mcal 6.90 7.05 6.15 6.30
Lysine, total 14.3 15.0 10.8 11.4
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 12.2 12.8 9.3 9.9
Calcium 18.8 19.2 15.8 16.2
Phosphorus, total 16.7 17.1 14.0 14.3
Phosphorus, available 9.4 9.6 7.4 7.6
Phosphorus, digestible 8.1 8.3 6.5 6.7

aAll diets are limit-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-11 (Gestating Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. bParity 0 = first gestation period (female has not farrowed a litter); parity 1 = second gestation period (female has farrowed one litter previously). cParity 2 = third gestation period (female has farrowed two litters previously). dAdjust to achieve a desired body condition or weight gain. eRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07- 07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 6. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for gestating swine fed lower energy diets (as-fed basis)a

  Parity 0 and 1b Parity 2 or greaterc
Litter size, total born – Assumed daily feed intake, lbd 10.5 – 5.1 12.5 – 5.2 12 – 4.6 14 – 4.7
Assumed total weight gain, lb – Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 115 – 1.35 125 – 1.35 80 – 1.35 90 – 1.35
%  of diet
Lysine, total 0.62 0.64 0.52 0.53
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 0.53 0.54 0.44 0.46
Threonine 0.40 0.41 0.33 0.35
Methionine 0.14 0.15 0.12 0.12
Methionine+cysteine 0.37 0.38 0.31 0.32
Tryptophan 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08
Isoleucine 0.31 0.31 0.25 0.26
Valine 0.36 0.37 0.30 0.31
Calcium 0.81 0.81 0.76 0.76
Phosphorus, total 0.72 0.72 0.67 0.67
Phosphorus, available 0.41 0.41 0.35 0.35
Phosphorus, digestible 0.36 0.36 0.31 0.31
g/Mcal MEe
Lysine, total 2.08 2.15 1.75 1.78
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.78 1.81 1.48 1.55
Threonine 1.35 1.38 1.12 1.18
Methionine 0.48 0.49 0.40 0.42
Methionine+cysteine 1.25 1.27 1.04 1.08
Tryptophan 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.28
Isoleucine 1.01 1.03 0.84 0.88
Valine 1.21 1.23 1.01 1.05
Calcium 2.72 2.72 2.56 2.56
Phosphorus, total 2.42 2.42 2.25 2.25
Phosphorus, available 1.38 1.38 1.18 1.18
Phosphorus, digestible 1.21 1.21 1.04 1.04
Calculated daily intake, g
Metabolizable energy, Mcal 6.88 7.02 6.21 6.34
Lysine, total 14.3 15.0 10.8 11.4
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 12.2 12.8 9.3 9.9
Calcium 18.8 19.2 15.8 16.2
Phosphorus, total 16.7 17.1 14.0 14.3
Phosphorus, available 9.4 9.6 7.4 7.6
Phosphorus, digestible 8.3 8.5 6.5 6.6

aAll diets are limit-fed under thermoneutral conditions; PIG factsheet #07-01-11 (Gestating Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. bParity 0 = first gestation period (female has not farrowed a litter); parity 1 = second gestation period (female has farrowed one litter previously). cParity 2 = third gestation period (female has farrowed two litters previously). dAdjust to achieve a desired body condition or weight gain. eRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07- 07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 7. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for lactating swine (as-fed basis)ab

  Parity 1c Parity 2 or greaterc
Assumed sow lactation wt change, lb -25 -10 -10 +5
Assumed sow daily feed intake, lb (Assumed daily piglet wt gain, lb) 11.8 (0.49) 10.1 (0.40) 14.2 (0.49) 12.3 (0.40)
Assumed litter size weaned – Assumed litter weaning wt, lb 11 – 145 10 – 115 12 – 160 11 – 125
Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50
%  of diet
Lysine, total 1.13 0.95 1.04 0.88
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.00 0.83 0.92 0.76
Threonine 0.59 0.52 0.57 0.50
Methionine 0.25 0.22 0.24 0.21
Methionine+cysteine 0.46 0.41 0.44 0.39
Tryptophan 0.18 0.16 0.17 0.15
Isoleucine 0.54 0.47 0.52 0.45
Valine 0.82 0.71 0.78 0.68
Calcium 0.90 0.90 0.85 0.85
Phosphorus, total 0.80 0.80 0.75 0.75
Phosphorus, available 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.40
Phosphorus, digestible 0.39 0.39 0.35 0.35
g/Mcal MEd
Lysine, total 3.42 2.87 3.14 2.66
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 3.02 2.51 2.78 2.30
Threonine 1.78 1.58 1.72 1.52
Methionine 0.76 0.68 0.72 0.64
Methionine+cysteine 1.39 1.23 1.34 1.17
Tryptophan 0.54 0.48 0.50 0.46
Isoleucine 1.63 1.43 1.59 1.36
Valine 2.48 2.16 2.36 2.05
Calcium 2.72 2.72 2.57 2.57
Phosphorus, total 2.42 2.42 2.27 2.27
Phosphorus, available 1.36 1.36 1.21 1.21
Phosphorus, digestible 1.18 1.18 1.06 1.06

aAll diets are full-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-12 (Lactating Swine Nutrient Recom- mendations and Feeding Management) for more details; parity 1 = first lactation period, parity 2 = second lactation period, etc. bSow performance assumptions: 21-day lactation length, initial piglet weight = 3 lb, sow weight at weaning = = 350 – 400 lb (parity 1) and 400 – 450 lb (parity 2+). cParity 1 = first lactation period; parity 2 = second lactation period. dRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 8. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for breeding boars (as-fed basis)a

Body weight, lb (Assumed daily feed intake, lbb) 300 to 400 (5.4) 400 to 650 (6.0)
Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal//b 1.50 1.50
% of diet
Lysine, total 0.75 0.75
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 0.64 0.64
Threonine 0.47 0.47
Methionine 0.17 0.17
Methionine + cysteine 0.45 0.45
Tryptophan 0.12 0.12
Isoleucine 0.36 0.36
Valine 0.44 0.44
Calcium 0.85 0.85
Phosphorus, total 0.75 0.75
Phosphorus, available 0.40 0.40
Phosphorus, digestible 0.35 0.35
g/Mcal MEc
Lysine, total 2.27 2.27
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.94 1.94
Threonine 1.43 1.43
Methionine 0.52 0.52
Methionine + cysteine 1.35 1.35
Tryptophan 0.35 0.35
Isoleucine 1.10 1.10
Valine 1.32 1.32
Calcium 2.57 2.57
Phosphorus, total 2.27 2.27
Phosphorus, available 1.21 1.21
Phosphorus, digestible 1.06 1.06

aAll diets are limit-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-13 (Breeding Boar Nutrient Recom- mendations and Feeding Management) for more details. bAdjust to achieve a desired body condition or weight gain. cRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 9. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for maternal-line replacement gilts (as-fed basis)ab

Type of diet (Body weight, lb) Phase 1 (45-90) Phase 2 (90-135) Phase 3 (135-180) Phase 4 (180-225) Phase 5 (225-270) Phase 6F (270-breeding) Phase 6L (270-flush)
Assumed daily feed intake, lb – Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 3.1 – 1.52 4.0 – 1.52 4.7 – 1.52 5.3 – 1.52 5.7 – 1.52 5.9 – 1.52 5.0 – 1.52
%  of diet
Lysine, total 1.15 1.04 0.95 0.85 0.74 0.65 0.77
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.02 0.92 0.84 0.74 0.64 0.56 0.67
Threonine 0.64 0.58 0.54 0.48 0.43 0.38 0.46
Methionine 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.19 0.17 0.21
Methionine + cysteine 0.59 0.53 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.42
Tryptophan 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.11
Isoleucine 0.56 0.51 0.46 0.41 0.35 0.31 0.37
Valine 0.66 0.60 0.54 0.48 0.42 0.36 0.44
Calcium 0.81 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.65 0.65 0.75
Phosphorus, total 0.81 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.65 0.65 0.75
Phosphorus, available 0.38 0.34 0.32 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.34
Phosphorus, digestible 0.35 0.32 0.29 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.32
g/Mcal MEc
Lysine, total 3.43 3.10 2.83 2.54 2.21 1.94 2.30
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 3.04 2.74 2.50 2.22 1.92 1.67 2.00
Threonine 1.92 1.73 1.60 1.44 1.29 1.14 1.36
Methionine 0.88 0.80 0.72 0.64 0.58 0.52 0.62
Methionine + cysteine 1.77 1.59 1.50 1.33 1.19 1.05 1.26
Tryptophan 0.49 0.44 0.40 0.36 0.31 0.27 0.32
Isoleucine 1.67 1.51 1.37 1.22 1.06 0.92 1.10
Valine 1.98 1.78 1.62 1.44 1.25 1.09 1.30
Calcium 2.42 2.24 2.12 2.00 1.94 1.94 2.24
Phosphorus, total 2.42 2.24 2.12 2.00 1.94 1.94 2.24
Phosphorus, available 1.13 1.01 0.95 0.87 0.87 0.87 1.01
Phosphorus, digestible 1.04 0.95 0.87 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.95

aAll diets are full-fed under themoneutral conditions except diet 6L, which is limit-fed and is used in place of diet 6F for limit-feeding programs; see PIG factsheet #07-01-10 (Replacement Gilt and Boar Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. bSufficient data are not available to indicate that requirements for other nutrients are different from those in Table 11 for animals of these weights. Provide breeding herd levels of trace minerals and vitamins beginning at about 270 lb. cRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 10. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for terminal-line replacement boars (as-fed basis)ab

Type of diet (Body weight, lb) Phase 1 (45-90) Phase 2 (90-135) Phase 3 (135-180) Phase 4 (180-225) Phase 5 (225-270) Phase 6 (270-300)
Assumed daily feed intake, lb – Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 3.1 – 1.52 4.0 – 1.52 4.7 – 1.52 5.3 – 1.52 5.7 – 1.52 5.9 – 1.52
%  of diet
Lysine, total 1.35 1.20 1.12 0.99 0.88 0.79
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 1.20 1.07 0.99 0.87 0.77 0.69
Threonine 0.76 0.67 0.64 0.57 0.52 0.47
Methionine 0.35 0.31 0.29 0.25 0.23 0.21
Methionine + cysteine 0.70 0.62 0.60 0.52 0.48 0.43
Tryptophan 0.19 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11
Isoleucine 0.66 0.59 0.55 0.48 0.42 0.38
Valine 0.78 0.69 0.64 0.57 0.50 0.45
Calcium 0.86 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.68
Phosphorus, total 0.86 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.68
Phosphorus, available 0.46 0.39 0.34 0.31 0.30 0.30
Phosphorus, digestible 0.45 0.38 0.33 0.30 0.29 0.29
g/Mcal MEc
Lysine, total 4.03 3.58 3.34 2.95 2.63 2.36
Standardized ileal digestible
Lysine 3.59 3.18 2.96 2.61 2.30 2.06
Threonine 2.26 2.00 1.90 1.69 1.54 1.40
Methionine 1.04 0.92 0.86 0.76 0.69 0.64
Methionine + cysteine 2.08 1.84 1.78 1.56 1.43 1.30
Tryptophan 0.57 0.51 0.47 0.42 0.37 0.33
Isoleucine 1.98 1.75 1.63 1.43 1.27 1.13
Valine 2.33 2.07 1.92 1.69 1.50 1.34
Calcium 2.57 2.39 2.27 2.15 2.03 2.03
Phosphorus, total 2.57 2.39 2.27 2.15 2.03 2.03
Phosphorus, available 1.37 1.16 1.01 0.93 0.90 0.90
Phosphorus, digestible 1.34 1.13 0.98 0.90 0.87 0.87

aAll diets are full-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-10 (Replacement Gilt and Boar Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. bSufficient data are not available to indicate that requirements for other nutrients are different from those in Table 11 for animals of these weights. Provide breeding herd levels of trace minerals and vitamins beginning at about 270 lb. cRecommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.

 

Table 11. Recommended dietary additions of lactose, trace minerals and vitamins from concentrates, base mixes or premixes

Type of diet (Body weight, lb) Nursery (9-45) Grower (45-135) Finisher-1 (135-225) Finisher-2 (225-315) Finisher + RACa (225-315) Sows Breeding boars
Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.54 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.50 1.50
Lactose, % 23 to 0b 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minerals
Sodium, %c,d 0.25 to 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.2 0.2
Chloride, %c,d 0.25 to 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.2 0.2
Copper, ppme 16 12 10 8 12 16 16
Iodine, ppm 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.25 0.30 0.30
Iron, ppm 165 125 100 75 125 165 165
Manganese, ppm 10 6 5 4 6 30 30
Selenium, ppmf 0.3 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.25 0.3 0.3
Zinc, ppme 165 125 100 75 125 165 165
Vitamins
Vitamin A, IU/lb 3000 2500 2000 1500 2500 4000 4000
Vitamin D3, IU/lb 300 250 200 150 250 300 300
Vitamin E, IU/lb 30 15 12 9 15 30 30
Vitamin K, mg/lbg 2 1 0.8 0.6 1 2 2
Riboflavin, mg/lb 4 4 3 2 4 4 4
Niacin, mg/lb 22 11 9 7 11 15 15
Pantothenic acid, mg/lb 12 7 6 5 7 10 10
Choline, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 250 250
Biotin, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.1
Vitamin B12, mg/lb 0.02 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.01 0.01 0.01
Folic acid, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0.75 0.75
Vitamin B6, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

aRactopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). b23, 18, 7.2 and 0% for phase 1 (9 to 11 lb), phase 2 (11 to 15 lb), phase 3 (15 to 25 lb) and phase 4 (25 to 45 lb), respectively. cSalt is usually added at the rate of 5 to 7 lb/ton in nursery diets, 6 to 7 lb/ton in grower-finisher diets and 10 lb/ton in sow and breeding boar diets to help provide a significant portion of the total dietary sodium and chloride recommendations. dRecommendations for sodium and chloride represent total dietary amounts, not additions; 0.25, 0.20, 0.20 and 0.15% for nursery phase 1 (9 to 11 lb), nursery phase 2 (11 to 15 lb), nursery phase 3 (15 to 25 lb) and nursery phase 4 (25 to 45 lb), respectively. eLevels of 3,000 ppm Zn for Phases 1 and 2 ( 9 to 15 lb) and 2,000 ppm Zn for Phase 3 ( 15 to 25 lb) from zinc ox- ide should be added to growth promotion; or 125 to 250 ppm Cu from copper sulfate or tri-basic copper chloride in Phases 1, 2, and 3 ( 9 to 25 lb). fMaximum legal addition is 0.3 ppm. gMenadione activity. See PIG factsheet #07-02-06 (Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets) for more details, including a recommended minimum and maximum amount to add to diets.

 

Table 12. Trace mineral premix specificationsabc

Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix
Copper mg 4,850
Iodine mg 90
Iron mg 50,000
Manganese mg 9,000
Selenium mg 90
Zinc mg 50,000

aMineral sources are listed in Table 22. bPremix usage rates: Sows, breeding boars and nursery pigs, 3 lb/ton of complete feed. Grower (45 to 135 lb pigs), 2.5 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 1 (135 to 225 lb pigs), 2 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 2 (225 to 315 lb pigs), 1.5 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher + RAC (225 to 315 lb pigs), 2.5 lb/ton of complete feed. cThe mineral additions shown in Table 11 are met or exceeded with a premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed.

 

Table 13. Vitamin premix specifications for nursery dietsabc

Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix
Vitamin A IU/lb 1,200,000
Vitamin D3 IU/lb 120,000
Vitamin E IU/lb 12,000
Vitamin K mg 800
Riboflavin mg 1,600
Niacin mg 8,800
Pantothenic acid mg 4,800
Choline mg 0
Biotin mg 0
Vitamin B12 mg 8.28
Folic acid mg 0
Vitamin B6 mg 0

aVitamin sources are listed Table 24. bPremix usage rate: 5 lb/ton of complete feed. cA premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed will fortify diets as shown in Table 11.

 

Table 14. Vitamin premix specifications for growing-finishing dietsabc

Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix
Vitamin A IU/lb 1,000,000
Vitamin D3 IU/lb 100,000
Vitamin E IU/lb 6,000
Vitamin K mg 400
Riboflavin mg 1,600
Niacin mg 4,400
Pantothenic acid mg 2,800
Choline mg 0
Biotin mg 0
Vitamin B12 mg 4
Folic acid mg 0
Vitamin B6 mg 0

aVitamin sources are listed Table 24. bPremix usage rates: Grower (45 to 135 lb pigs), 5 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 1 (135 to 225 lb pigs), 4 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 2 (225 to 315 lb pigs), 3 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher + RAC (225 to 315 lb pigs), 5 lb/ton of complete feed. cA premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed will fortify diets as shown in Table 11.

 

Table 15. Vitamin premix specifications for sow and breeding boar dietsabc

Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix
Vitamin A IU/lb 1,600,000
Vitamin D3 IU/lb 120,000
Vitamin E IU/lb 12,000
Vitamin K mg 800
Riboflavin mg 1,600
Niacin mg 6,000
Pantothenic acid mg 4,000
Choline mg 100,000
Biotin mg 40
Vitamin B12 mg 4
Folic acid mg 300
Vitamin B6 mg 0

aVitamin sources are listed in Table 24. bPremix usage rate: 5 lb/ton of complete feed. cA premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed will fortify diets as shown in Table 11.

 

Ingredient composition and use rate

 

Individual ingredients can vary widely in composition because of the variation in species or variety, storage conditions, climate, soil moisture, agronomic differences and manufacturing practices. Variations in chemical analytical procedures can also affect the values obtained. Therefore, the values listed in this publication should be used as a guide in formulating diets. Otherwise, rely on ingredient analyses as necessary prior to diet formulation.

 

Most of the tabular information contained herein was obtained from the NRC (1998). Information published since the NRC (1998) was also included. An attempt was made to include analytical results of feed ingredients obtained from contemporary crop cultivars, newer processing techniques, and improved analytical procedures.

 

Net energy

 

The net energy value for approximately 40% of the ingredients in Table 16 was obtained from EvaPig (2008); for other ingredients, net energy was calculated from one of the following equations where ME = metabolizable energy, EE = ether extract, ST = starch, CP = crude protein, CF = crude fiber and ADF = acid detergent fiber. Equation NE1 was used when values for EE, ST, CP and ADF were known or could be reasonably estimated. When ADF was not available, equation NE2 was used to estimate NE.

NE1 = 0.726 x ME + 1.33 x EE + 0.39 x ST – 0.62 x CP – 0.83 x ADF
(R2 = 0.97; Noblet et al., 1994)

 

NE2 = 0.730 x ME + 1.31 x EE + 0.37 x ST – 0.67 x CP – 0.97 x CF
(R2 = 0.97; Noblet et al., 1994)

 

The net energy value for fats and oils (Table 24) was calculated by multiplying ME by 0.90, the estimated efficiency with which fat is converted from ME to NE (INRA, 2004).

 

Iodine value and iodine product

 

Due to carcass fat quality concerns when feeding high levels of dietary unsaturated fat, both iodine value (IV) and iodine value product (IVP) are listed for each ingredient. The iodine value for each ingredient reflects the fat saturation level of each ingredient. A lower iodine value indicates a higher degree of fat saturation in the ingredient. Iodine value product is the value assigned to each ingredient that accounts for its IV and percentage fat it contains. Once calculated, IVP can be used to help predict the carcass fat IV of pigs fed those diets. Iodine values for available ingredients were obtained from the NRC (1998). For ingredients not listed in the NRC (1998), fatty acid profiles were obtained from cited references from which iodine values were calculated using the following equation:

 

IV = [C16:1] × 0.95 + [C18:1] × 0.86 + [C18:2] × 1.732 + [C18:3] × 2.616 + [C20:1] × 0.785 + [C22:1] × 0.723,
where the brackets indicate concentration (percentage) of the fatty acid (AOCS, 1998).

 

Iodine value product for each ingredient was calculated using the following equation:

 

IVP = IV of the ingredient oil × % oil in the ingredient × 0.10
(Christensen, 1962).

 

Ingredient use rate

 

The upper limits of usage presented in this factsheet (Table 25) represent conservative estimates of the extent ingredients can be included in swine diets balanced for energy, amino acids, minerals and vitamins and not negatively impact growth and reproductive performance and/or carcass composition. We acknowledge that establishing upper limits of usage is greatly dependent on individual risk tolerance. Also, situations exist were it is economically justified to increase the inclusion rate of an ingredient even if performance is negatively impacted.

 

In general, factors such as palatability, risk of gastrointestinal disturbance, unspecified loss of performance, appetite impairment and others that are involved in affecting growth and reproductive performance and/or carcass composition were considered in establishing the upper limits of usage indicated in this factsheet.

 

Table 16. Chemical composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab

Ingredient Dry matter (%) Digestible energy (kcal/ lb) Metabolizable energy (kcal/lb) Net Energy (kcal/ lb) Crude protein (%) Acid detergent fiber (%) Neutral detergent fiber (%) Crude fiber (%) Starch (%) Crude fat (%) Linoleic acid (%) Iodine value Iodine value product
Alfalfa meal, dehydrated 92 830 750 398 17.0 30.2 41.2 24.0 0 2.6 0.35 100 26.0
Bakery waste, dehydrated 91 1787 1682 1349 10.8 1.3 2.0 1.2 53.7 11.3 5.70 125 141.3
Barley, two row 89 1383 1322 1034 11.3 6.2 18.0 5.0 52.2 1.9 0.88 125 23.8
Beet pulp 91 1300 1134 671 8.6 24.3 42.4 18.2 0 0.8 0.04 1 0.1
Blood
Cells, spray- dried 92 1996 1900 1115 92.0 0.5 0 1.5 44 7.0
Meal, flash- dried 92 1043 886 386 87.6 1.0 0 1.6 44 7.0
Meal, spray- dried 93 1529 1338 710 88.8 1.0 0 1.3 0.17 44 6.0
Plasma protein, spray-dried 91 2066 1809 1094 78.0 0.2 0 2.0 44 8.0
Canola meal 90 1309 1200 687 35.6 17.2 21.2 11.1 0 3.5 0.42 118 41.3
Corn
Distillers dried grains w/solubles (DDGS) 88 1649 1552 1076 27.4 12.2 30.5 7.7 7.3 9.9 2.15 125 123.8
Distillers dried grains – high protein 90 1997 1876 1252 41.8 8.7 16.4 7.2 11.2 3.4 125 42.5
Germ 91 1665 1618 1259 14.8 5.6 20.4 6.2 23.6 17.5 125 218.8
Gluten feed 90 1356 1184 740 21.5 10.7 33.3 6.8 18.0 3.0 1.43 125 37.5
Gluten meal, 60% CP 90 1920 1741 1122 60.2 4.6 8.7 1.1 17.2 2.9 1.17 125 36.3
Grain, yellow dent 89 1602 1555 1203 8.3 2.8 9.6 2.3 64.1 3.9 1.92 125 48.8
Grain, high nutrient 87 1580 1662 1273 9.2 2.3 6.3 2.3 58.0 4.5 125 56.3
Grain, high oil 87 1697 1629 1291 8.4 2.9 2.0 60.3 6.0 125 75.0
Grain, low- phytate 88 1697 1629 1286 9.2 2.8 2.2 64.1 4.4 125 55.0
Hominy feed 90 1522 1459 1104 10.3 8.1 28.5 5.0 36.0 6.7 2.97 125 83.8
Egg, spray-dried 2380 2285 1696 47.0 0 0 28 71 198.8
Fish meal, men- haden 92 1710 1527 994 62.3 0.9 0 9.4 0.12 110 103.4
Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 1388 1229 793 33.6 15.0 23.9 9.8 0 1.8 0.36 169 30.4
Lactose 96 1602 1561 1447 0.3
Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 96 1432 1249 798 52.8 5.6 32.5 2.4 0 10.1 0.72 70 76.3
Meat meal (< 4% P) 96 1507 1328 842 56.4 8.3 31.6 2.3 0 11.2 0.80 70 84.0
Millet, proso 90 1370 1340 1004 11.1 13.8 15.8 6.1 52.8 3.5 1.92 135 47.3
Molasses
Beet 76 1093 1060 716 11.0 0 0 0.2 1 0
Cane 74 1044 1011 697 4.0 0 0 1.1 1 0.1
Oats
Grain 89 1256 1232 861 11.5 13.5 27.0 10.7 36.2 4.7 1.62 106 49.8
Groat 90 1674 1575 1218 13.9 4.6 11.6 2.5 52.6 6.2 2.40 106 65.7
Peas 88 1580 1500 1082 22.0 8.2 13.7 5.5 44.6 1.2 0.47 135 16.2
Rye 88 1483 1390 1070 11.8 4.6 12.3 2.2 53.8 1.6 0.76 131 21.0
Skim milk, dried 96 1809 1689 1232 34.6 0.2 0 0.9 0.01 27 2.4
Sorghum, grain (milo) 89 1536 1518 1187 9.2 8.3 18.0 2.2 64.1 2.9 1.13 116 33.6
Soybean
Hulls 89 908 848 453 12.0 40.4 56.4 34.2 0.9 2.2 0.16 130 28.6
Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 1672 1536 907 47.5 5.4 8.9 3.4 0.8 3.0 0.60 130 39.0
Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 1651 1517 894 46.5 6.4 10.2 4.4 0.8 3.0 0.59 130 39.0
Meal, 44% CP 89 1586 1445 881 44.0 9.4 13.3 7.3 0.8 1.5 0.69 130 19.5
Meal, enzymati- cally treated 92 54.4 3.8 0.8 1.1 130 14.3
Meal, ferment- ed 91 1620 1520 938 53.7 3.3 0.8 0.8 130 10.4
Protein concen- trate 90 1860 1591 969 64.0 3.5 0 3.0 130 39.0
Protein isolate 92 1882 1618 922 85.8 0.4 0 0.6 130 7.8
Seeds, heat processed 90 1878 1677 1162 35.2 8.0 13.9 5.2 0.4 18.0 9.13 130 234.0
Sunflower meal, 42% CP 93 1288 1243 732 42.2 18.4 27.8 15.8 0 2.9 1.07 120 34.8
Triticale 90 1506 1445 1122 12.5 3.2 12.7 4.0 59.9 1.8 0.71 87 15.7
Wheat
Bran 89 1098 1034 679 15.7 11.9 42.1 10.0 19.8 4.0 1.80 83 33.2
Grain, hard red winter 88 1526 1459 1114 13.5 3.7 13.5 2.6 55.5 2.0 0.93 83 16.6
Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89 1395 1375 993 15.9 9.2 35.6 7.8 27.7 4.2 1.74 83 34.9
Whey
Dried 96 1513 1450 1299 12.1 0 0.9 0.01 27 2.4
Permeate 96 1558 1500 1080 3.8 0 0 0.2 27 0.5
Protein concentrate, 78%CP 94 2250 1978 1290 78.2 0 0 12.8 27 35.0

aDashes indicate no data were available. bSee PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 17. Amino acid composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids for swine shown in parenthesisab

Dry Matter (%) Crude protein (%) Lysine (%) Threonine (%) Methionine (%) Cysteine (%) Tryptophan (%) Isoleucine (%) Valine (%) Arginine (%) Histidine (%) Leucine (%) Phenylalanine (%) Tyrosine (%)
Alfalfa Meal, dehy 92 17.0 0.74 (56) 0.70 (63) 0.25 (71) 0.18 (37) 0.24 (46) 0.68 (68) 0.86 (64) 0.71 (74) 0.37 (59) 1.21 (71) 0.84 (70) 0.55 (66)
Bakery Waste, dehy 91 10.8 0.27 (77) 0.33 (69) 0.18 (90) 0.23 (91) 0.10 (91) 0.38 (94) 0.46 (93) 0.46 (—) 0.24 (—) 0.80 (90) 0.50 (—) 0.36 (—)
Barley, two row 89 11.3 0.41 (79) 0.35 (81) 0.20 (86) 0.28 (86) 0.11 (80) 0.39 (84) 0.52 (82) 0.54 (86) 0.25 (86) 0.77 (86) 0.55 (88) 0.29 (87)
Beet Pulp 91 8.6 0.52 (51) 0.38 (30) 0.07 (64) 0.06 (21) 0.10 (41) 0.31 (60) 0.45 (42) 0.32 (57) 0.23 (61) 0.53 (59) 0.30 (54) 0.40 (51)
Blood
Cells, spray-dried 92 92.0 8.51 (98) 3.38 (96) 0.81 (94) 0.61 (89) 1.37 (97) 0.49 (53) 8.50 (98) 3.77 (99) 6.99 (98) 12.70 (98) 6.69 (98) 2.14 (88)
Meal, flash-dried 92 87.6 7.56 (77) 4.07 (80) 0.95 (80) 1.20 (64) 1.06 (77) 0.88 (65) 8.03 (77) 3.37 (79) 4.57 (79) 11.48 (80) 6.41 (81) 2.32 (54)
Meal, spray-dried 93 88.8 7.45 (94) 3.78 (94) 0.99 (96) 1.04 (91) 1.48 (94) 1.03 (92) 7.03 (91) 3.69 (92) 5.30 (92) 10.81 (92) 5.81 (93) 2.71 (93)
Plasma proteins, spray-dried 91 78.0 6.84 (91) 4.72 (87) 0.75 (92) 2.63 (85) 0.36 (92) 2.71 (92) 4.94 (89) 4.55 (95) 2.55 (91) 7.61 (92) 4.42 (92) 3.53 (92)
Canola meal 90 35.6 2.08 (78) 1.59 (76) 0.74 (86) 0.91 (83) 0.45 (75) 1.43 (78) 1.82 (77) 2.21 (85) 0.96 (85) 2.58 (81) 1.43 (82) 1.13 (79)
Corn
Distillers dried grains w/sol (DDGS) 88 27.4 0.78 (62) 0.97 (71) 0.58 (82) 0.38 (74) 0.20 (70) 1.04 (75) 1.38 (75) 1.16 (81) 0.71 (77) 3.32 (83) 1.34 (81) 1.16 (81)
Distillers dried grains – high protein 90 41.8 1.17 (64) 0.54 (77) 0.86 (88) 0.80 (82) 0.24 (81) 1.73 (81) 2.11 (80) 1.52 (83) 1.10 (81) o.96 (91) 2.38 (87) 1.97 (88)
Germ 91 14.8 0.79 (58) 0.52 (53) 0.26 (68) 0.31 (64) 0.11 (67) 0.45 (57) 0.73 (62) 1.10 (83) 0.42 (69) 1.09 (68) 0.58 (64) 0.42 (59)
Gluten feed 90 21.5 0.63 (66) 0.74 (71) 0.35 (83) 0.46 (59) 0.07 (64) 0.66 (80) 1.01 (77) 1.04 (87) 0.67 (78) 1.96 (85) 0.76 (87) 0.58 (84)
Gluten meal, 60% CP 90 60.2 1.02 (80) 2.08 (84) 1.43 (90) 1.09 (82) 0.31 (63) 2.48 (84) 2.79 (80) 1.93 (89) 1.28 (80) 10.19 (88) 3.84 (85) 3.25 (87)
Grain, yellow dent 89 8.3 0.26 (78) 0.29 (82) 0.17 (90) 0.19 (86) 0.06 (84) 0.28 (87) 0.39 (87) 0.37 (89) 0.23 (87) 0.99 (92) 0.39 (90) 0.25 (89)
Grain, high nutrient 87 9.2 0.27 (78) 0.31 (79) 0.22 (87) 0.22 (82) o.07 (76) 0.33 (83) 0.44 (82) 0.43 (88) 0.26 (85) 1.17 (87) 0.41 (85) 0.20 (80)
Grain, high oil 87 8.4 0.28 (—) 0.31 (—) 0.20 (—) 0.19 (—) 0.07 (—) 0.31 (—) 0.42 (—) 0.43 (—) 0.27 (—) 1.06 (—) 0.42 (—) — (—)
Grain, low- phytate 88 9.2 0.29 (81) 0.30 (81) 0.20 (88) 0.19 (85) 0.07 (—) 0.33 (86) 0.46 (85) 0.41 (93) 0.25 (86) 1.10 (90) 0.37 (89) 0.32 (89)
Hominy feed 90 10.3 0.38 (65) 0.40 (65) 0.18 (86) 0.18 (67) 0.10 (60) 0.36 (75) 0.52 (73) 0.56 (86) 0.28 (74) 0.98 (83) 0.43 (84) 0.40 (88)
Egg, spray-dried 47.0 3.09 (81) 2.25 (84) 1.48 (90) 1.11 (90) 0.73 (90) 2.87 (89) 3.30 (86) 4.03 (89)
Fish meal, menhaden 92 62.9 4.81 (95) 2.64 (88) 1.77 (94) 0.57 (88) 0.66 (90) 2.57 (94) 3.03 (93) 3.66 (94) 1.78 (93) 4.54 (94) 2.51 (93) 2.04 (92)
Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 33.6 1.24 (82) 1.26 (79) 0.59 (85) 0.59 (87) 0.52 (84) 1.56 (81) 1.74 (82) 2.97 (78) 0.68 (81) 2.06 (80) 1.57 (80) 1.03 (—)
Lactose 96 0.3
Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 96 52.8 2.76 (80) 1.62 (80) 0.72 (83) 0.51 (63) 0.36 (78) 1.54 (82) 2.28 (79) 3.55 (83) 0.98 (83) 3.17 (81) 1.74 (81) 1.16 (78)
Meat meal (< 4% P) 96 56.4 3.29 (83) 1.89 (82) 0.87 (87) 0.52 (58) 0.43 (79) 1.92 (84) 2.60 (80) 3.58 (86) 1.29 (83) 3.71 (83) 2.00 (85) 1.37 (80)
Millet, proso 90 11.1 0.23 (90) 0.40 (94) 0.31 (93) 0.18 (92) 0.16 (98) 0.46 (96) 0.57 (94) 0.41 (93) 0.20 (88) 1.24 (94) 0.56 (98) 0.31 (—)
Molasses
Beet 76 11.0 0.16 (—) 0.07 (—) 0.02 (—) 0.07 (—) 0.08 (—) 0.28 (—) 0.19 (—) 0.08 (—) 0.06 (—) 0.29 (—) 0.05 (—) 0.29 (—)
Cane 74 4.0 0.01 (—) 0.06 (—) 0.02 (—) 0.04 (—) 0.01 (—) 0.03 (—) 0.12 (—) 0.02 (—) 0.01 (—) 0.05 (—) 0.02 (—) 0.05 (—)
Oats
Grain 89 11.5 0.40 (76) 0.44 (71) 0.22 (84) 0.36 (75) 0.14 (78) 0.48 (80) 0.66 (79) 0.87 (89) 0.31 (85) 0.92 (83) 0.65 (86) 0.41 (82)
Groat 90 13.9 0.48 (79) 0.44 (80) 0.20 (86) 0.22 (85) 0.18 (82) 0.55 (83) 0.72 (81) 0.85 (86) 0.24 (82) 0.98 (83) 0.66 (84) 0.51 (84)
Peas 88 22.0 1.60 (88) 0.90 (78) 0.24 (80) 0.26 (73) 0.19 (75) 0.95 (83) 1.05 (80) 1.85 (92) 0.55 (88) 1.65 (85) 1.05 (86) 0.75 (85)
Rye 88 11.8 0.38 (73) 0.32 (73) 0.17 (81) 0.19 (83) 0.12 (75) 0.37 (77) 0.51 (75) 0.50 (79) 0.24 (78) 0.64 (79) 0.50 (82) 0.26 (76)
Skim milk, dried 96 34.6 2.86 (93) 1.62 (92) 0.92 (96) 0.30 (89) 0.51 (97) 1.87 (88) 2.33 (91) 1.24 (92) 1.05 (96) 3.67 (97) 1.78 (98) 1.87 (97)
Sorghum, grain (milo) 88 9.2 0.22 (81) 0.31 (84) 0.17 (89) 0.17 (83) 0.10 (83) 0.37 (87) 0.46 (87) 0.38 (87) 0.23 (81) 1.21 (90) 0.49 (88) 0.35 (87)
Soybean
Hulls 89 12.0 0.71 (59) 0.43 (58) 0.14 (68) 0.19 (63) 0.14 (63) 0.44 (60) 0.51 (58) 0.59 (77) 0.28 (58) 0.74 (61) 0.45 (68) 0.36 (64)
Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 47.5 3.02 (90) 1.85 (87) 0.67 (91) 0.74 (87) 0.65 (90) 2.16 (89) 2.27 (88) 3.48 (94) 1.28 (91) 3.66 (89) 2.39 (89) 1.82 (90)
Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 46.5 2.96 (89) 1.81 (86) 0.66 (90) 0.72 (86) 0.64 (89) 2.11 (88) 2.22 (87) 3.40 (94) 1.25 (90) 3.58 (88) 2.34 (88) 1.78 (89)
Meal, 44% CP 89 44.0 2.83 (89) 1.73 (85) 0.61 (91) 0.70 (84) 0.61 (87) 1.99 (88) 2.06 (86) 3.23 (93) 1.17 (90) 3.42 (88) 2.18 (88) 1.69 (90)
Meal, enzymatically treated 92 54.4 3.06 (88) 2.02 (86) 0.71 (92) 0.76 (85) 0.69 (88) 2.31 (90) 2.40 (90) 3.75 (98) 1.35 (89) 3.98 (89) 2.74 (92) 2.03 (92)
Meal, fermented 91 53.7 3.11 (77) 1.98 (79) 0.76 (88) 0.77 (70) 0.67 (84) 2.48 (86) 2.69 (84) 3.50 (94) 1.30 (84) 4.09 (85) 2.71 (87) 1.97 (88)
Protein concentrate 90 64.0 4.20 (95) 2.80 (94) 0.90 (94) 1.00 (94) 0.90 (93) 3.30 (94) 3.40 (93) 5.79 (99) 1.80 (97) 5.30 (95) 3.40 (97) 2.50 (96)
Protein isolate 92 85.8 5.26 (91) 3.17 (85) 1.01 (92) 1.19 (82) 1.08 (88) 4.25 (90) 4.21 (89) 6.87 (99) 2.25 (91) 6.64 (89) 4.34 (92) 3.10 (91)
Seeds, heat processed 90 35.2 2.22 (93) 1.41 (86) 0.53 (92) 0.55 (85) 0.48 (89) 1.61 (90) 1.68 (89) 2.60 (97) 0.96 (92) 2.75 (90) 1.83 (91) 1.32 (91)
Sunflower meal, 42% CP 93 42.2 1.20 (90) 1.33 (84) 0.82 (90) 0.66 (81) 0.44 (84) 1.44 (84) 1.74 (82) 2.93 (93) 0.92 (85) 2.31 (85) 1.66 (86) 1.03 (88)
Triticale 90 12.5 0.39 (81) 0.36 (76) 0.20 (89) 0.26 (87) 0.14 (88) 0.39 (84) 0.51 (84) 0.57 (88) 0.26 (84) 0.76 (86) 0.49 (85) 0.32 (83)
Wheat
Bran 89 15.7 0.64 (71) 0.52 (70) 0.25 (79) 0.33 (77) 0.22 (74) 0.49 (76) 0.72 (75) 1.07 (87) 0.44 (82) 0.98 (78) 0.62 (81) 0.43 (80)
Grain, hard red winter 88 13.5 0.34 (81) o.37 (83) 0.20 (89) 0.29 (91) 0.15 (88) 0.41 (89) 0.54 (86) 0.60 (88) 0.32 (90) 0.86 (90) 0.60 (91) 0.38 (90)
Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89 15.9 0.57 (89) 0.51 (88) 0.26 (93) 0.32 (91) 0.20 (91) 0.53 (92) 0.75 (90) 0.97 (95) 0.44 (94) 1.06 (93) 0.70 (95) 0.29 (92)
Whey
Dried 96 12.1 0.90 (87) 0.72 (79) 0.17 (81) 0.25 (85) 0.18 (79) 0.62 (83) 0.60 (77) 0.26 (48) 0.23 (89) 1.08 (87) 0.36 (83) 0.25 (77)
Permeate 96 3.8 0.18 (—) 0.14 (—) 0.03 (—) 0.04 (—) 0.03 (—) 0.17 (—) 0.13 (—) 0.06 (—) 0.05 (—) 0.22 (—) 0.06 (—) — (—)
Protein concen- trate, 78%CP 94 78.2 7.33 (96) 5.21 (88) 1.65 (94) 1.75 (85) 1.72 (102) 5.07 (94) 4.75 (93) 1.96 (95) 1.58 (91) 8.49 (95) 2.69 (90) 2.44 (86)

aDashes indicate no data were available. bSee PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 18. Chemical composition of manufactured amino acids sources for swine (as-fed basis).ab

Amino acid Source Dry Matter (%) Digestible energy (kcal/ lb) Metabolizable energy (kcal/ lb) Net en- ergy (kcal/ lb) Crude protein (%) Lysine (%) Threonine (%) Methionine (%) Tryptophan (%) Isoleucine (%) Valine (%)
Isoleucine L-isoleucine 99 2926 2781 2146 65.4         98  
Lysine L-lysine HCl 99.5 2175 1979 1533 95.4 78.8          
Lysine, liquid 55.0 1333 59.9 50.0          
Lysine, liquid 60.0          
Lysine, sulfate 95.0 2023 1925 1435 75.0 50.7 0.4 0.2 0.14 0.4 0.7
Methionine DL-methionine 99.5 2566 2436 1881 58.4     99.0      
MHA 88.0 2273 2153 1664     88      
Threonine L-threonine 99.5 1870 1718 1338 73.1   99.0        
Tryptophan L-tryptophan 99.5 2990 2806 2175 85.3       98.5    
Valine L-valine 98.5 2644 2486 72.1           96.5

aDashes indicate no data were available. bSee PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 19. Chemical composition of fats, oils and crude glycerol for swine (as-fed basis).ab

Ingredient Dry Matter (%) Digestible energy (kcal/lb) Metabolizable energy (kcal/lb) Net energy (kcal/lb) Unsaturated: saturated fatty acid ratio Iodine value Iodine value product Total Σ N-6 Total Σ N-3
Animal fats
Beef tallow 99 3636 3491 3142 0.92 44 440 3.1 0.6
Choice white grease 99 3768 3616 3254 1.45 60 600 11.6 0.4
Poultry fat 99 3873 3718 3346 2.20 78 780 19.5 1.0
Glycerol, crude (86.96 % glycerol) 91 1520 1458
Fish oils
Herring 99 3945 3786 3407 3.39 1.4 17.8
Menhaden 99 3852 3698 3328 2.00 1.5 25.1
Vegetable oils
Canola 100 3982 3823 3441 12.46 118 1180 20.3 9.3
Corn 100 3980 3820 3438 6.53 125 1250 58.0 0.7
Restaurant grease 98 3886 3730 3357 2.34 75 750 17.5 1.9
Soybean 100 3977 3818 3436 5.64 130 1300 51.0 6.8

aDashes indicate no data were available. bSee PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 20. Mineral composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent bio-availablity and apparent digestibility of phosphorus for swine shown in parenthesis, respectively a*

Ingredient Dry matter (%) Calcium (%) Phosphorus (%) Sodium (%) Chlorine (%) Copper (ppm) Iodine (ppm) Iron (ppm) Manganese (ppm) Selenium (ppm) Zinc (ppm) Magnesium (%) Potassium (%) Sulfur (%)
Alfalfa meal, dehy 92 1.53 0.26 (100, 20) 0.09 0.47 10 0.15 333 32 0.34 24 0.23 2.30 0.29
Bakery waste, dehy 91 0.13 0.25 (36, —) 1.14 1.48 5 28 65 15 0.24 0.39 0.02
Barley, two row 89 0.06 0.35 (30, 41b) 0.04 0.12 7 0.04 78 18 0.19 25 0.14 0.45 0.15
Beet pulp 91 0.70 0.10 (20, 20) 0.20 0.10 11 2 411 46 0.09 12 0.22 0.61 0.31
Blood
Cells, spray-dried 92 0.02 0.34 (92, 80) 0.55 0.61 3 2618 0.4 1.0 16 0.02 0.80 0.49
Meal, flash-dried 92 0.21 0.21 (92, 80) 0.29 0.38 6 0.34 2341 10 0.58 16 0.21 0.14 0.45
Meal, spray-dried 93 0.41 0.30 (92, 80) 0.44 0.25 8 0.34 2919 6 0.58 30 0.11 0.15 0.47
Plasma proteins, spray-dried 91 0.15 1.48 (92, 80) 2.76 1.19 18 77 2.5 1.6 13 0.03 0.02 1.02
Canola meal 90 0.63 1.01 (16, 32) 0.07 0.11 6 0.09 142 49 1.10 69 0.51 1.22 0.85
Corn
Distillers dried grains w/sol (DDGS) 88 0.06 0.69 (76, 59) 0.21 0.20 5 0.03 105 14 0.39 85 0.29 0.82 0.41
Distillers dried grains-high protein 90 0.02 0.38 (76, 60)
Germ 91 0.02 1.20 (33, 29)
Gluten feed 90 0.22 0.83 (59, 22) 0.15 0.22 48 0.07 460 24 0.27 70 0.33 0.98 0.22
Gluten meal, 60% CP 90 0.05 0.44 (15, 19) 0.02 0.06 26 282 4 1.0 33 0.08 0.18 0.43
Grain, yellow dent 89 0.03 0.28 (14, 28) 0.02 0.05 3 0.09 29 7 0.07 18 0.12 0.33 0.13
Grain, high nutrient 87 0.04 0.26 (35, 40) 0.11 0.32
Grain, high oil 87 0.01 0.26 (32, 40)
Grain, low- phytate 88 0.03 0.28 (66, 55) 0.10 0.28
Hominy feed 90 0.05 0.43 (14, 21) 0.08 0.07 13 67 15 0.10 30 0.24 0.61 0.03
Egg, spray-dried 0.21 0.67 (50, —)
Fish meal, men- haden 92 5.21 3.04 (93, 77) 0.40 0.55 11 1.09 440 37 2.10 147 0.16 0.70 0.45
Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 0.39 0.83 (—, 32) 0.13 0.06 22 0.90 270 41 0.63 66 0.54 1.26 0.39
Lactose 96
Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 96 9.87 4.63 (90, 75) 0.69 0.65 11 1.31 606 17 0.31 0.38 0.41 0.65 0.38
Meat meal (< 4% P) 96 6.60 3.17 (90, 75) 0.80 0.97 10 440 10 0.37 94 0.35 0.57 0.45
Millet, proso 90 0.03 0.31 (32, —) 0.04 0.03 26 71 30 0.70 18 0.16 0.43 0.14
Molasses
Beet 76 0.10 0.02 (33, 20) 0.68 0.45 13 1.1 117 29 17 0.05 3.92
Cane 74 0.74 0.06 (33, 20) 0.24 1.59 29 188 59 13 0.33 3.74
Oats
Grain 89 0.07 0.31 (22, 32) 0.08 0.10 6 0.09 85 43 0.30 38 0.16 0.42 0.21
Groat 90 0.08 0.41 (14, 32) 0.05 0.09 6 49 32 0.09 26 0.11 0.38 0.20
Peas 88 0.10 0.44 (30, 55) 0.04 0.05 9 0.26 65 23 0.38 23 0.12 1.02 0.20
Rye 88 0.06 0.33 (—, 50b) 0.02 0.03 7 0.08 60 58 0.38 31 0.12 0.48 0.15
Skim milk, dried 96 1.31 1.00 (91, 90) 0.48 1.00 5 0.82 8 2 0.12 42 0.12 1.60 0.32
Sorghum, grain (milo) 89 0.03 0.29 (20, 25) 0.01 0.09 5 0.02 45 15 0.20 15 0.15 0.35 0.08
Soybean
Hulls 89 0.49 0.14 (78, 20) 0.01 0.02 8 580 22 0.21 40 0.22 1.20 0.13
Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 0.34 0.69 (23, 32) 0.02 0.05 20 0.15 176 36 0.27 55 0.30 2.14 0.44
Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 0.34 0.67 (23, 32) 0.02 0.05 20 0.15 187 36 0.27 55 0.30 2.14 0.44
Meal, 44% CP 89 0.32 0.65 (31, 20) 0.01 0.05 20 202 29 0.32 50 0.27 1.96 0.43
Meal, enzymati- cally treated 92 0.35 0.74 (—, 59)
Meal, fermented 91 0.29 0.82 (—, 59) 0.12 7 142 21 39 0.18 1.20 0.36
Protein concen- trate 90 0.35 0.81 (33, —) 0.05 13 110 47 30 0.32 2.20 0.54
Protein isolate 92 0.15 0.65 (—, —) 0.07 0.02 14 137 5 0.14 34 0.08 0.27 0.71
Seeds, heat processed 90 0.25 0.59 (33, 32) 0.03 0.03 16 0.09 80 30 0.11 39 0.28 1.70 0.30
Sunflower meal, 42% CP 93 0.37 1.01 (3, 19) 0.04 0.13 25 0.09 200 35 0.32 98 0.75 1.27 0.38
Triticale 90 0.05 0.33 (46, 48b) 0.03 0.03 8 0.09 31 43 32 0.10 0.46 0.15
Wheat
Bran 89 0.16 1.20 (29, 50b) 0.04 0.07 14 0.06 170 113 0.51 100 0.52 1.26 0.22
Grain, hard red winter 88 0.06 0.37 (50, 45b) 0.01 0.06 6 0.09 39 34 0.33 40 0.13 0.49 0.15
Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89 0.12 0.93 (41, 50b) 0.05 0.04 10 0.11 84 100 0.72 92 0.41 1.06 0.17
Whey
Dried 96 0.75 0.72 (97, 90) 0.94 1.40 13 130 3 0.12 10 0.13 1.96 0.72
Permeate 96 0.86 0.66 (97, 86) 1.00 2.23 0.3 36 0.26 1.1 0.15 2.10 0.27
Protein concen- trate, 78%CP 94 0.63 0.38 (—, —)

aDashes indicate no data were available. bAssumes the ingredient is not heated or cooked; if the ingredient is heat-treated, the digestibility coefficient shown will be reduced by the following percentage units due to the inactivation of endogenous phytase (barley, 9; rye, 20; triticale, 18; wheat bran, 25; wheat, 15; wheat midds, 25). *See PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 21. Mineral concentrations in macro mineral sources for swine (as-fed basis)a. Percent bio-availablity and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus for swine shown in parenthesis, respectivelya*

Mineral element Source Dry Matter (%) Calcium (%)b Phosphorus (%)c Sodium (%) Chloride (%) Iron (ppm) Manganese (ppm) Zinc (ppm) Magnesium (%) Potassium (%) Sulfur (%)
Calcium Calcium chloride, dihydrate 27
Limestone (minimum 95% calcium carbonate) 99 38.0 0.02 (—,—) 0.08 0.02 600 200 18 1.61 0.08 0.08
Oyster shell 99 37.6 0.21 0.01 2840 133 0.30 0.10
Calcium and phosphorus Bone meal, steamed 97 29.8 12.5 (82,—) 0.04 850 300 126 0.30 0.20 2.40
Dicalcium phosphate 96 20 to 24 18.50 (100,81) 0.18 0.47 7900 1400 92 0.80 0.15 0.80
Monocalcium phosphate 100 17.00 21.10 (100,81) 0.20 7500 100 220 0.90 0.16 0.80
Calcium sulfate, dehydrate 85 21.85 0.48 16.19
Defluorinated rock phosphate 100 32.00 18.00 (87, —) 3.27 8400c 500 43 0.29 0.10 0.13
Monoammonium phosphate 97 0.35 24.20 (100,—) 0.20 4100 100 300 0.75 0.16 1.50
Curaco phosphate 100 35.09 14.23 (50, —) 0.20 3500 0.80
Soft rock phosphate 100 16.09 9.05 (40, —) 0.10 19200 1000 0.38
Magnesium Magnesium carbonate 81 0.02 100 30.20
Magnesium oxide 100 1.69 10600 55.00 0.02 0.10
Magnesium sulfate, hepta- hydrate 49 0.02 0.01 9.60 13.04
Potassium Potassium chloride 100 0.05 1.00 46.93 600 10 0.23 51.37 0.32
Potassium sulfate 0.15 0.09 1.50 700 10 0.60 43.04 17.64
Sodium Sodium carbonate 43.30
Sodium bicarbonate 0.01 27.00 0.01
Sodium and chloride Sodium chloride 0.30 39.50 59.00 100 0.005 0.20
Sodium and phosphorus Disodium phosphate 100 21.15 (100,—) 31.04 `—
Monosodium phosphate 87 0.09 24.94 (100,92) 18.65 0.02 10 0.01 0.01
Sodium and sulfur Sodium sulfate, decahy- drate 13.80 9.70

aThese mineral supplements are not chemically pure compounds, and the composition may vary substantially among sources. The supplier’s analysis should be used if it is available. For example, feed-grade dicalcium phosphate contains some monocalcium phosphate and feed-grade monocalcium phosphate contains some dicalcium phosphate. Dashes indicate that no data were available. Most common sources are in italic. bEstimates indicate 90 to 100% relative bioavailability of calcium in most sources of monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, and calcitic limestone. The calcium in high-mag- nesium limestone or dolomtic limestone is less bioavailable (50 to 80%). cBioavailability estimates are generally expressed as a percentage of monosodium phosphate or monocalcium phosphate. dIron in defluorinated phosphate is about 65% as available as the iron in ferrous sulfate. *See PIG factsheets #07-02-07 (Macro-Minerals for Swine Diets) and #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 22. Mineral concentrations in micro or trace mineral sources for swinea*

Mineral element Source Concentration of element, % Relative bioavailability, %b
Chromium Tripicolinate Variable 100
Propionate Variable 13
Methionine Variable 51
Yeast Variable 23
Copper Sulfate (pentahydrate) 25.2 100
Amino acid chelate Variable 122
Amino acid complex Variable
Acetate 32.1
Carbonate 50 to 55 60 to 100
Chloride, tribasic 58 100
Lysine Variable 94 to 124
Oxide 75.0 0 to 10
Polysaccharide complex Variable
Proteinate Variable 105 to 111
Iodine Ethylenediamine dihydroiodiode (EDDI) 79.5 100
Calcium iodate 63.5 100
Potassium iodide 68.8 100
Potassium iodate 59.3
Copper iodide 66.6 100
Iron Sulfate (monohydrate) 30 100
Amino acid chelate Variable
Amino acid complex Variable
Chloride 20.7 40 to 100
Carbonate 38 15 to 80
Methionine Variable
Polysaccharide complex Variable
Proteinate Variable
Sulfate (heptahydrate) 20 100
Manganese Sulfate (monohydrate) 29.5 100
Amino acid chelate Variable
Amino acid complex Variable
Carbonate 46.4 30 to 100
Chloride 27.5 100
Dioxide 63.1 35 to 95
Methionine Variable 120 to 125
Oxide 60 70
Polysaccharide complex Variable
Proteinate Variable 110
Selenium Sodium selenite 45 100
Proteinate (methionine) Variable 102
Sodium selenate 21.4 100
Yeast Variable 108
Zinc Sulfate (monohydrate) 35.5 100
Amino acid chelate Variable
Amino acid complex Variable
Carbonate 56 100
Chloride 48 100
Methionine Variable 95 to 100
Polysaccharide complex Variable
Oxide 72 50 to 80
Proteinate Variable 100
Sulfate (heptahydrate) 22.3 100
Tetrabasic chloride 58

aMost common sources are in bold-italic; dashes indicate no data were available bIn research a frequently used mineral source is often assumed to be 100% bioavailable and other forms are com- pared based on amount that accumulates in body tissues. The mineral source listed first within each category was generally the standard with which the other sources were compared to determine relative bioavailability. *See PIG factsheets #07-02-06 (Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets) and #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 23. Vitamin composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab

Ingredient Dry matter (%) Vitamin A (IU/b) Vitamin D (IU/lb) Vitamin E (IU/lb) Vitamin K (IU/lb) Riboflavin (mg/ lb) Niacin (mg/ lb) Pantothenic acid (mg/ lb) Choline (mg/ lb) Biotin (mg/ lb) Vitamin B12 (mg/lb) Folic acid (mg/ lb) Pyridoxine (mg/ lb) Thiamin (mg/ lb)
Alfalfa meal, dehy 92 11,457   33.7   6.2 17 13.2 635 0.24 0 1.98 2.9 1.5
Bakery waste, dehy 91 509     0.6 12 3.8 419 0.03 0 0.09 2.0 1.3
Barley, two row 89 497   5.0   0.8 25 3.6 0 0.06 0 0.14 2.3 2.0
Beet pulp 91 1284   8.9   0.3 8 0.6 371 0 0.9 0.2
Blood
Cells, spray-dried 92    
Meal, flash-dried 92   0.7   0.6 10 0.5 354 0.04 0.02 0.05 2.0 0.5
Meal, spray-dried 93   0.7   1.5 10 1.7 220 0.13 0.18 2.0 0.1
Plasma proteins, spray-dried 91    
Canola meal 90   9.1   2.6 73 4.3 3039 0.44 0 0.38 3.3 2.4
Corn
Distillers dried grains w/sol (DDGS) 89 423     3.9 34 6.4 1196 0.35 0 0.41 3.6 1.3
Distillers dried grains – high protein 92    
Germ 92    
Gluten feed 90 121   5.7   1.1 30 7.7 689 0.06 0 0.13 5.9 0.9
Gluten meal, 60% CP 90   4.5   1.0 25 1.6 150 0.07   0.06 3.1 0.1
Grain, yellow dent 89 97   5.6   0.5 11 2.7 281 0.03 0.07 2.3 1.6
Grain, high nutrient 87    
Grain, high oil 87   —-  
Grain, low-phytate 88    
Hominy feed 90 1090   4.4   1.0 2.1 3.7 524 0.06 0 0.10 5.0 3.7
Egg, spray-dried    
Fish meal, menhaden 92   3.4   2.2 25 4.1 1386 0.06 0.06 0.17 1.8 0.2
Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 24   1.4   1.3 15 6.7 686 0.19 0 0.59 2.7 3.4
Lactose 96    
Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 93   1.1   2.1 22 1.9 905 0.04 0.04 0.19 2.1 0.2
Meat meal (< 4% P) 94   0.8   2.1 26 2.3 942 0.04 0.04 0.23 1.1 0.3
Millet, proso 90     1.7 10 5.0 200 0.07 0 0.10 2.6 3.3
Molasses
Beet 76    
Cane 74     0.91 13 13 0.24 0.04 1.4 0.32
Oats
Grain 89 448   5.3   0.8 9 5.9 429 0.11 0 0.14 0.9 2.7
Groat 90     0.7 6 6.1 517 0.09 0 0.23 0.5 2.9
Peas 88 121   0.1   0.8 14 8.5 248 0.07 0 0.09 0.5 2.1
Rye 88   6.1   0.7 9 3.6 190 0.04 0 0.27 1.2 1.6
Skim milk, dried 96   2.8   8.7 5 16.5 632 0.11 0.02 0.21 1.9 1.7
Sorghum, grain (milo) 89 0.05   3.4   0.6 19 5.6 303 0.12 0 0.08 2.4 1.4
Soybean
Hulls 89    
Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 24   1.6   1.4 10 6.8 1239 0.12 0 0.62 2.9 1.5
Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 24   1.6   1.4 10 6.8 1239 0.12 0 0.62 2.9 1.5
Meal, 44% CP 89 24   1.6   1.3 15 7.3 1267 0.12 0 0.62 2.7 2.0
Meal, enzymatically treated      
Meal, fermented                            
Protein concentrate 90    
Protein isolate 92     0.8 3 1.9 1 0.14 1.13 2.4 0.1
Seeds, heat processed 90 230   12.2   1.2 10 6.8 1046 0.11 0 1.63 4.9 5.0
Sunflower meal, 42% CP 90   6.2   1.6 100 10.9 1429 0.66 0 0.52 6.2 1.6
Triticale 90   1.1   0.2 8 3 210 0.07 1.4
Wheat
Bran 89 121   11.2   2.1 84 14.1 559 0.16 0 0.29 5.4 3.6
Grain, hard red winter 88 48   7.8   0.6 22 4.5 353 0.05 0 0.10 1.5 2.0
Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89     1.0 19 6.0 696 0.05 0 0.36 2.1 10.3
Whey
Dried 96   0.2   12.3 5 21.3 826 0.12 0.01 0.39 1.8 1.9
Permeate 96    
Protein concentrate, 78%CP 94    

aDashes indicate no data were available. bSee PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 24. Vitamin concentration in manufactured vitamin sources for swineab

Vitamin Concentration/method of expression Source
Vitamin A 1 IU = 0.3 μg retinol or 0.344 μg vitamin A acetate or 1 USP unit Vitamin A acetate (all-trans retinyl acetate)
1 IU = 0.55 μg vitamin A palmitate Vitamin A palmitate
1 IU = 0.36 μg vitamin A propionate Vitamin A propionate
Vitamin D 1 IU = 0.025 μg cholecalciferol or 1 USP unit or 1 ICU Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)
Vitamin E 1 mg  = IU dl-α-tocopheryl acetate dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (all rac)
1 mg = 1.36 IU d-α-tocopheryl acetate d-α-tocopheryl acetate (RRR)
1 mg = 1.11 IU dl-α-tocopherol dl-α-tocopherol (all rac)
1 mg = 1.49 IU d-α-tocopherol d-α-tocopherol (RRR)
Vitamin K 1 Ansbacher unit = 20 Dam units = 0.0008 mg menadione Menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB)
Menadione nicotinamide bisulfite (MNB)
Menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB)
Riboflavin Commonly expressed as μg or mg Crystalline riboflavin
Niacin Commonly expressed as μg or mg Niacinamide
Nicotinic acid
Pantothenic acid Commonly expressed as μg or mg d-calcium pantothenate
dl-calcium pantothenate
dl-calcium pantothenate – calcium chloride complex
Choline Commonly expressed as μg or mg Choline chloride
Biotin Commonly expressed as μg or mg d-biotin
Vitamin B12 1μg cyanocobalamin or 1 USP unit or 11,000 LLD (L. lactis Dorner) units Cyanocobalamin
Folic acid Commonly expressed as μg or mg Folic acid
Pyridoxine Commonly expressed as μg or mg Pyridoxine hydrochloride
Thiamin Commonly expressed as μg or mg Thiamin mononitrate
Thiamin hydrochloride
Vitamin C Commonly expressed as μg or mg L-ascorbic acid
L-ascorbic acid phosphate
L-ascorbic acid coated with ethyl cellulose

aMost common sources are in italic. bSee PIG factsheet #07-02-06 (Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets) for more details.

 

Table 25. Recommended upper limits of usage (% of the diet) for feed ingredients in swine diets. An * denotes no nutritional limitations in a balanced dietab

Type of diet (Body weight, lb) Nursery (< 25) Nursery (25-45) Grower (45-130) Finisher (130-315) Gestation Lactation
Alfalfa meal, dehydrated 0 5 10 15 25 0
Bakery waste, dehy- drated 15 25 * * * *
Barley, two row (48 lb/ bushel) * * * * * *
Beet pulp 0 5 10 15 50 10
Blood
Cells, spray-dried 3 3 5 5 5 5
Meal, flash-dried 3 3 5 5 5 5
Meal, spray-dried 3 3 5 5 5 5
Plasma protein, spray dried * * * * * *
Canola meal 0 5 15 20 15 15
Corn
Distillers dried grains w/solubles (DDGS) 10 20 30 20 40 20
Distillers dried grains- high protein 10 20 20 20 30 15
Germ 10 20 20 10 30 20
Gluten feed 5 5 10 15 40 10
Gluten meal, 60% CP 5 10 20 20 30 10
Grain, yellow dent (>40 lb/bushel) * * * * * *
Grain, high nutrient * * * * * *
Grain, high oil * * * 30 * *
Grain, low-phytate * * * * * *
Hominy feed 0 20 60 30 60 60
Egg, spray-dried 10 * * * * *
Fish meal, menhaden 15 20 6 0 6 6
Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 3 15 15 15 20 10
Lactose * * 20 20 20 20
Meat and bone meal, 50% CP 5 10 * * * *
Meat meal, 55% CP 5 10 * * * *
Millet, proso 40 40 * * * 40
Molasses
Beet 5 5 5 5 5 5
Cane 5 5 5 5 5 5
Oats
Grain (38 lb/bushel) 15 30 35 40 * 10
Groat * * * * * *
Peas 15 30 40 50 15 25
Rye (ergot free) 0 10 25 35 20 10
Skim milk, dried * * * * * *
Sorghum, grain (milo) (> 48 lb/bushel) * * * * * *
Soybean
Hulls 5 5 10 10 25 5
Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 15 * * * * *
Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 15 * * * * *
Meal, 44% CP 15 * * * * *
Meal, enzymatically treated 15 * * * * *
Meal, fermented 15 * * * * *
Protein concentrate 20 * * * * *
Protein isolate * * * * * *
Seeds, heat processed 5 * * 15 * *
Sunflower meal, 42% CP 0 5 * * * *
Triticale (ergot free) 20 30 * * * 40
Wheat
Bran 0 5 10 20 30 10
Grain, hard red winter (> 55 lb/bushel) * * * * * *
Middlings, <9.5% fiber 5 10 25 35 * 10
Whey
Dried 40 30 20 15 5 5
Permeate 30 25 20 15 5 5
Protein concentrate 78%CP * * * * * *

aAssumes diets are balanced for energy, essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins. bHigher levels may be fed although growth and reproductive performance and carcass composition and quality may be negatively impacted. Economic considerations should influence actual inclusion rates.