Publish Date: 07/08/2014
Curing is an ancient process, whereby meat was originally preserved by the addition of salt. In their textbook, “The Meat We Eat”, Romans et al., (2001) traced the origins of salt curing of meat to the Sumerian culture, which emerged in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, approximately 4,000 B.C. It is commonly believed that the salt used in early meat curing was contaminated with salt peter (potassium nitrate), which contributed to a sustained, desirable red color of meat after exposure. Shortly after, additional benefits including a longer storage life before spoilage also were realized. As the industry developed, the additional multifunctional contributions of curing ingredients to cured meats became well-recognized.
Publish Date: 12/13/2012
Marketed under the trade-name Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) is a phenethanolamine β-adrenergic agonist used as a feed supplement to redirect nutrients to improve live pig performance (daily gain and feed conversion efficiency) and fat-free lean yields in pork carcasses . Research was initiated in the 1980’s and RAC was FDA-approved for inclusion in swine finishing diets in December, 1999. Initial approval included an inclusion range of 4.5 to 18 g/ton and fed from 150 to 240 lb. In 2006, the label changed to include an inclusion range from 4.5 to 9 g/ton of feed and to be fed for the last 50 to 90 lbs of body weight gain prior to market. This overview summarizes all levels of Paylean feeding; however, as producers consider the current, approved feeding level, more emphasis should be placed on the 4.5 to 9 g/ton data. The specific focus of the factsheet is an overview of the effects of RAC on fresh pork quality and cooked pork palatability.
Publish Date: 07/02/2012
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding 0, 5, 10, or 15% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass quality, color stability, and sensory characteristics of the longissimus muscle (LM) of finishing pigs. Two hundred forty pigs (61.7 lb) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with varying concentrations of…
Publish Date: 05/15/2012
Humans use color to judge the ‘value’ or quality of a product, often comparing and choosing a product based on expectations and past experiences. Choices made based on visual evaluation, which requires no physical contact, pose very little risk; therefore, when a product does not meet ‘color expectations’, it is an easy decision deem a product ‘unacceptable’. Color is produced when energy in the visible range (400 to 700 nm) is perceived by the eye (Hunter 1986). The energy that produces color is contained in light. ‘Pigments’ are molecules that absorb (subtract) some of the wavelengths from the light that illuminates an object. Wavelengths of the light that are absorbed are not observed whereas the wavelengths of light that are reflected produce the color we see. In order for a ‘color’ to be visible, it must be contained in the reflected light, meaning the ‘color’ must be present in the original light directed at the object Both the pigments in the product and the light directed at the product determine how color of the object appears.
Publish Date: 04/06/2012
The properties of fresh and processed pork are dependent on factors related to composition of the product such as moisture, lipid and protein content. It is important to recognize, however, that it is not just the amount of these components, but rather the characteristics of protein, lipid and water that are responsible for differences in pork color, texture, water holding capacity and tenderness. In many cases, it is the proteins in pork that are primarily important in the variations that are observed in these traits. The state and nature of proteins are primarily responsible for pork color, pork texture, pork tenderness and water holding capacity.
Publish Date: 04/09/2010
There are 3,000 US companies producing meat products with combined annual revenue of about $85 billion (Research and Markets Ltd., 2009). They produce about 40 billion pounds of beef products per year, and 30 billion pounds of pork. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of factors that affect consumer behavior regarding pork purchase and consumption which may allow the pork industry to maximize demand for pork in the marketplace and successfully compete with other animal protein sources.
Publish Date: 07/17/2006
North Carolina State University Pork Quality Research from 2002. Water supplementation with 900 ppm Mg for either 0, 2, 4, or 6 d prior to slaughter was evaluated as a means to improve pork quality. Hot carcass weights and carcass temperature and pH (45 min and 24 hr) were determined after slaughter. Chops from the…
Publish Date: 06/04/2006
The main goals of the United States Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) oil program are prevention, preparedness and response to oil spills. It is important that EPA and industry be able to prevent, prepare for, and respond to oil spills. However, EPAs primary focus is on prevention. Although oil spills will always occur, it is important…
Publish Date: 09/18/2006
Purdue University 1997 Swine Research Report. Much work has been done on developing equations for estimating fat-free lean mass and carcass value in pigs (Akridge et al., 1992; and Boland et al., 1995). However, most equations currently in use have not been evaluated for the extent to which they account for genotype and sex differences…
Publish Date: 06/06/2006
The role of the terminal crossbred female in a modern pork production system is to reach puberty at an early age, farrow and wean large litters, rebreed quickly, maintain a high farrowing rate, and sustain high productivity through multiple parities. We also know that the dam of the litter contributes half of the genes that…