Megan Nickel Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine

Post-Doctoral Research Associate - Swine Medicine Education Center

Resources Reviewed

Factsheets

Application of precision livestock farming technologies in swine welfare management: What is possible today?

Publish Date: 07/01/2020

It is estimated that by the year 2050 the world population will be over 9 billion people and food production will need to increase up to 60% more to meet demand (FAO 2009). Therefore, livestock production would likely intensify increasing animal density and lowering the stockperson per animal ratio. This will result in less time available to monitor and manage individual animals properly, jeopardizing animal health and welfare. Currently, there is a growing interest to automate swine welfare assessment using precision livestock farming (PLF) which increases the farmer’s ability to keep contact with individual animals in the growing livestock production intensification.


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Factsheets

An Overview of Rodent Control for Commercial Pork Production Operations

Publish Date: 06/03/2006

The house mouse (Mus musculus), Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), and roof rat (Rattus rattus) are common pests in and around livestock and farm facilities. Overall, the house mouse is the primary rodent pest for most confined farrow-to-finish operations. Norway rats and roof rats may affect both confinement operations as well outdoor operations such as hoop facilities, and pasture lot operations. Roof rats occupy the coastal areas of Washington, Oregon, and California, as well as a larger area along the Gulf and Atlantic Coast states from Texas east to Maryland. Roof rats are not established in the mid-western states.


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Resources Edited

Factsheets

Application of precision livestock farming technologies in swine welfare management: What is possible today?

Publish Date: 07/01/2020

It is estimated that by the year 2050 the world population will be over 9 billion people and food production will need to increase up to 60% more to meet demand (FAO 2009). Therefore, livestock production would likely intensify increasing animal density and lowering the stockperson per animal ratio. This will result in less time available to monitor and manage individual animals properly, jeopardizing animal health and welfare. Currently, there is a growing interest to automate swine welfare assessment using precision livestock farming (PLF) which increases the farmer’s ability to keep contact with individual animals in the growing livestock production intensification.


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Factsheets

Toxoplasma

Publish Date: 06/03/2006

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan (single-celled) parasite found in muscle and other tissues of many warm-blooded animals including pigs and people. Cats and other felids are the only hosts in which the parasite can complete its entire life cycle (Figure 1), and the only animals that excrete the environmentally resistant and infectious stage called the oocyst (eggs) in the feces. Infection occurs when pigs, and other animals, accidentally ingest oocysts in soil or water or eat tissues of rodents, wildlife, or meat containing cysts. Ingested oocysts or tissue cysts enter the intestine and release sporozoites or bradyzoites, respectively. These stages penetrate intestinal epithelial cells and transform into rapidly dividing tachyzoites. Tachyzoites are dispersed throughout the body by the circulatory and lymphatic systems, eventually entering and encysting as bradyzoites (tissue cysts) in skeletal muscle and other organs of the body (brain, heart, liver). These cysts remain alive in the body for the lifetime of the animal, and are infective when eaten by other hosts, such as humans. Once tissue cysts have formed, most animals are resistant to a second infection. In the cat, a series of asexual stages in the intestine is followed by sexual reproduction of the parasite with the development of gamonts, fertilization, formation of zygotes, and the production of oocysts that are passed in the feces. Cats may shed more than 10 million oocysts per day for 3-10 days after infection. Oocysts must mature (sporulate) in the environment for 1-5 days to become infective for a new host. Transplacental transmission of infection can occur in some hosts, including humans, who become infected during pregnancy.


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Factsheets

Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome (HBS) in Swine

Publish Date: 06/03/2006

Historical reports of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) in swine describe infrequent, explosive outbreaks of sudden deaths with intestinal hemorrhage and no apparent infectious cause. Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome does not have a single, known etiology nor are specific risk factors consistently associated with the deaths. A diagnosis of HBS is applied only after thorough efforts to rule out other causes of rapid death and intestinal hemorrhage have been completed. The most common differential diagnoses are intestinal volvulus (twisted gut), the hemorrhagic form of porcine proliferative enteritis (PPE, ileitis), gastric ulcers, bacterial toxemia (e.g. acute infections with Salmonella or hemolytic E. coli), or other causes of sudden death. Control requires that one accurately rule out other known causes of sudden death, objectively assess environment and feeding practices, and properly manage risk factors that may be present. Reports of specific, consistently successful therapeutic interventions are rare.


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