Megan Nickel Holden Farms

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Resources Reviewed

Factsheets

Steps for Treatment, Control and Elimination of Swine Dysentery

Publish Date: 06/13/2022

Swine dysentery (SD or bloody scours), once one of the most expensive swine diseases, largely disappeared in North America in the 1990’s with three site production and improved hygiene, among other changes in swine industry structure. However, since the early 2000s, SD has re-emerged in swine operations in portions of the U.S. and several Canadian provinces. SD is an intestinal bacterial disease that is very expensive to treat and control medically. It is very difficult to completely eliminate once pigs and facilities are contaminated. SD can be spread by infected swine, rodents and other animals in contact with infected swine as well as any fecal material on equipment or clothing. Biosecurity practices are effective at reducing the exposure risks and, when properly implemented, will prevent or slow the spread of this disease (and other diseases) between farms. Your swine veterinarian can assist you in creating a biosecurity plan to prevent introduction to your herd as well as accurate diagnosis should clinical signs of SD be suspected. For more information on how to recognize SD, see the Pork Information Gateway’s Factsheet, “ Swine Dysentery (Bloody Scours); Recognition and Awareness, Diagnosis, Transmission and Clinical Signs”.


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Factsheets

Swine Dysentery (Bloody Scours); Recognition and Awareness, Diagnosis, Transmission and Clinical Signs

Publish Date: 06/13/2022

Swine dysentery (SD or bloody scours), once one of the most expensive swine diseases, largely disappeared in North America in the 1990’s with three site production and improved hygiene, among other changes in swine industry structure. However, since the early 2000s, SD has re-emerged in swine operations in portions of the U.S. and several Canadian provinces. SD is an intestinal bacterial disease that is very expensive to treat and control medically. It is very difficult to completely eliminate once pigs and facilities are contaminated. SD can be spread by infected swine, rodents and other animals in contact with infected swine as well as any fecal material on equipment or clothing. Biosecurity practices are effective at reducing the exposure risks and, when properly implemented, will prevent or slow the spread of this disease (and other diseases) between farms. Please see the Pork Information Gateway Factsheet, “Steps for Treatment, Control and Elimination of Swine Dysentery” for more information.


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Factsheets

Salmonellosis and Salmonella Infections

Publish Date: 09/01/2021

Salmonella enterica is the genus and species of bacteria that is important to swine producers for two major reasons: 1. Salmonella infections can cause severe disease in pigs (salmonellosis); and 2. Pigs can carry and shed Salmonella indefinitely, which can be a source of Salmonella-associated food poisoning to humans via contamination of pork products.


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Factsheets

Application of precision livestock farming technologies in swine welfare management: What is possible today?

Publish Date: 07/01/2020

It is estimated that by the year 2050 the world population will be over 9 billion people and food production will need to increase up to 60% more to meet demand (FAO 2009). Therefore, livestock production would likely intensify increasing animal density and lowering the stockperson per animal ratio. This will result in less time available to monitor and manage individual animals properly, jeopardizing animal health and welfare. Currently, there is a growing interest to automate swine welfare assessment using precision livestock farming (PLF) which increases the farmer’s ability to keep contact with individual animals in the growing livestock production intensification.


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Factsheets

Streptococcus Suis Disease in Pigs

Publish Date: 12/06/2021

The bacteria, Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes significant disease in swine operations worldwide. In fact, it is now the most common cause of systemic disease in nursery piglets. Furthermore, there has been a marked increase in S. suis cases recently, mainly in herds who have reduced and/or eliminated the use of preventive medications (Poeta Silva, 2021). S. suis colonizes the tonsils of most pigs and is capable of causing disease in the brain via meningitis (brain barrier inflammation) and through septicemia (bloodstream infection), thus reaching other organs. While S. suis is most often associated with meningitis, other manifestations include arthritis, polyserositis (widespread membrane inflammation), endocarditis (heart valve inflammation) and, as a secondary cause, pneumonia (lung inflammation). S. suis is also a zoonotic agent able to cause serious disease (mostly meningitis) in people working with pigs or pork-derived products.


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Resources Edited

Factsheets

Salmonellosis and Salmonella Infections

Publish Date: 09/01/2021

Salmonella enterica is the genus and species of bacteria that is important to swine producers for two major reasons: 1. Salmonella infections can cause severe disease in pigs (salmonellosis); and 2. Pigs can carry and shed Salmonella indefinitely, which can be a source of Salmonella-associated food poisoning to humans via contamination of pork products.


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Factsheets

Application of precision livestock farming technologies in swine welfare management: What is possible today?

Publish Date: 07/01/2020

It is estimated that by the year 2050 the world population will be over 9 billion people and food production will need to increase up to 60% more to meet demand (FAO 2009). Therefore, livestock production would likely intensify increasing animal density and lowering the stockperson per animal ratio. This will result in less time available to monitor and manage individual animals properly, jeopardizing animal health and welfare. Currently, there is a growing interest to automate swine welfare assessment using precision livestock farming (PLF) which increases the farmer’s ability to keep contact with individual animals in the growing livestock production intensification.


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Factsheets

Streptococcus Suis Disease in Pigs

Publish Date: 12/06/2021

The bacteria, Streptococcus suis (S. suis) causes significant disease in swine operations worldwide. In fact, it is now the most common cause of systemic disease in nursery piglets. Furthermore, there has been a marked increase in S. suis cases recently, mainly in herds who have reduced and/or eliminated the use of preventive medications (Poeta Silva, 2021). S. suis colonizes the tonsils of most pigs and is capable of causing disease in the brain via meningitis (brain barrier inflammation) and through septicemia (bloodstream infection), thus reaching other organs. While S. suis is most often associated with meningitis, other manifestations include arthritis, polyserositis (widespread membrane inflammation), endocarditis (heart valve inflammation) and, as a secondary cause, pneumonia (lung inflammation). S. suis is also a zoonotic agent able to cause serious disease (mostly meningitis) in people working with pigs or pork-derived products.


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Factsheets

Porcine pleuropneumonia (PPP) caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App)

Publish Date: 09/01/2021

Porcine pleuropneumonia (PPP) is an infectious respiratory disease of swine caused by the bacteria Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP). The disease occurs throughout the world and results in significant economic losses due to mortality, growth retardation, veterinary costs and slaughter condemnations. It is rather well controlled in North America, but PPP remains a major concern in Latin-American, Australasian and most European countries.


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Factsheets

Toxoplasma

Publish Date: 06/03/2006

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan (single-celled) parasite found in muscle and other tissues of many warm-blooded animals including pigs and people. Cats and other felids are the only hosts in which the parasite can complete its entire life cycle (Figure 1), and the only animals that excrete the environmentally resistant and infectious stage called the oocyst (eggs) in the feces. Infection occurs when pigs, and other animals, accidentally ingest oocysts in soil or water or eat tissues of rodents, wildlife, or meat containing cysts. Ingested oocysts or tissue cysts enter the intestine and release sporozoites or bradyzoites, respectively. These stages penetrate intestinal epithelial cells and transform into rapidly dividing tachyzoites. Tachyzoites are dispersed throughout the body by the circulatory and lymphatic systems, eventually entering and encysting as bradyzoites (tissue cysts) in skeletal muscle and other organs of the body (brain, heart, liver). These cysts remain alive in the body for the lifetime of the animal, and are infective when eaten by other hosts, such as humans. Once tissue cysts have formed, most animals are resistant to a second infection. In the cat, a series of asexual stages in the intestine is followed by sexual reproduction of the parasite with the development of gamonts, fertilization, formation of zygotes, and the production of oocysts that are passed in the feces. Cats may shed more than 10 million oocysts per day for 3-10 days after infection. Oocysts must mature (sporulate) in the environment for 1-5 days to become infective for a new host. Transplacental transmission of infection can occur in some hosts, including humans, who become infected during pregnancy.


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