Salmonellosis and Salmonella Infections
Publish Date: 09/01/2021
Salmonella enterica is the genus and species of bacteria that is important to swine producers for two major reasons: 1. Salmonella infections can cause severe disease in pigs (salmonellosis); and 2. Pigs can carry and shed Salmonella indefinitely, which can be a source of Salmonella-associated food poisoning to humans via contamination of pork products.
Salmonella choleraesuis in Swine
Publish Date: 06/03/2006
Salmonellosis, the disease that may result from Salmonella infection, continues to have a significant economic impact on the national swineherd. Between 1975 and 1995 , S. choleraesuis was one of the most common organisms isolated from cases of swine pneumonia and septicemia. It also was the most prevalent serotype (>90% of isolates) of all Salmonella isolated from diseased swine. In 1991, it was estimated that the disease caused by S. choleraesuis cost pork producers in the United States more than $100 million annually due to death losses, medication costs, and poor production efficiency of survivors. Since the mid-1990’s, the prevalence of S. choleraesuis associated disease has moderated. Currently, serotypes of Salmonella other than S. choleraesuis have increased in frequency and presently account for over 50% of the serotypes isolated from diseased swine.
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Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome (HBS) in Swine
Publish Date: 06/03/2006
Historical reports of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) in swine describe infrequent, explosive outbreaks of sudden deaths with intestinal hemorrhage and no apparent infectious cause. Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome does not have a single, known etiology nor are specific risk factors consistently associated with the deaths. A diagnosis of HBS is applied only after thorough efforts to rule out other causes of rapid death and intestinal hemorrhage have been completed. The most common differential diagnoses are intestinal volvulus (twisted gut), the hemorrhagic form of porcine proliferative enteritis (PPE, ileitis), gastric ulcers, bacterial toxemia (e.g. acute infections with Salmonella or hemolytic E. coli), or other causes of sudden death. Control requires that one accurately rule out other known causes of sudden death, objectively assess environment and feeding practices, and properly manage risk factors that may be present. Reports of specific, consistently successful therapeutic interventions are rare.