Steps for Treatment, Control and Elimination of Swine Dysentery
Publish Date: June 13, 2022
Swine dysentery (SD or bloody scours), once one of the most expensive swine diseases, largely disappeared in North America in the 1990’s with three site production and improved hygiene, among other changes in swine industry structure. However, since the early 2000s, SD has re-emerged in swine operations in portions of the U.S. and several Canadian provinces. SD is an intestinal bacterial disease that is very expensive to treat and control medically. It is very difficult to completely eliminate once pigs and facilities are contaminated. SD can be spread by infected swine, rodents and other animals in contact with infected swine as well as any fecal material on equipment or clothing. Biosecurity practices are effective at reducing the exposure risks and, when properly implemented, will prevent or slow the spread of this disease (and other diseases) between farms. Your swine veterinarian can assist you in creating a biosecurity plan to prevent introduction to your herd as well as accurate diagnosis should clinical signs of SD be suspected. For more information on how to recognize SD, see the Pork Information Gateway’s Factsheet, “ Swine Dysentery (Bloody Scours); Recognition and Awareness, Diagnosis, Transmission and Clinical Signs”.
Salmonellosis and Salmonella Infections
Publish Date: September 1, 2021
Salmonella enterica is the genus and species of bacteria that is important to swine producers for two major reasons: 1. Salmonella infections can cause severe disease in pigs (salmonellosis); and 2. Pigs can carry and shed Salmonella indefinitely, which can be a source of Salmonella-associated food poisoning to humans via contamination of pork products.
Salmonella choleraesuis in Swine
Publish Date: June 3, 2006
Salmonellosis, the disease that may result from Salmonella infection, continues to have a significant economic impact on the national swineherd. Between 1975 and 1995 , S. choleraesuis was one of the most common organisms isolated from cases of swine pneumonia and septicemia. It also was the most prevalent serotype (>90% of isolates) of all Salmonella isolated from diseased swine. In 1991, it was estimated that the disease caused by S. choleraesuis cost pork producers in the United States more than $100 million annually due to death losses, medication costs, and poor production efficiency of survivors. Since the mid-1990’s, the prevalence of S. choleraesuis associated disease has moderated. Currently, serotypes of Salmonella other than S. choleraesuis have increased in frequency and presently account for over 50% of the serotypes isolated from diseased swine.
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Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome (HBS) in Swine
Publish Date: June 3, 2006
Historical reports of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) in swine describe infrequent, explosive outbreaks of sudden deaths with intestinal hemorrhage and no apparent infectious cause. Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome does not have a single, known etiology nor are specific risk factors consistently associated with the deaths. A diagnosis of HBS is applied only after thorough efforts to rule out other causes of rapid death and intestinal hemorrhage have been completed. The most common differential diagnoses are intestinal volvulus (twisted gut), the hemorrhagic form of porcine proliferative enteritis (PPE, ileitis), gastric ulcers, bacterial toxemia (e.g. acute infections with Salmonella or hemolytic E. coli), or other causes of sudden death. Control requires that one accurately rule out other known causes of sudden death, objectively assess environment and feeding practices, and properly manage risk factors that may be present. Reports of specific, consistently successful therapeutic interventions are rare.