ARS Research- Research projects conducted on Swine/Pork and Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica
Research projects conducted on Swine/Pork and Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica
NAHMS Study 2000:
In collaboration with the USDA‐APHIS‐ National Animal Monitoring System NAHMS) Swine 2000 study, US hogs were screened to determine the individual on‐site‐farm prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from the top 160 farms (≥60 samples/farm) in 17 hog producing states. Ninety three percent of U.S. hogs and 92% of producers with over 100 hogs were represented in this first large scale study. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected in 13.1% of individual hogs and on 45.1% (55 of 122) of premises. The pathological potential of the individual porcine isolates were determined by serotyping virulence attributes, clonality and antibiotic resistance which indicate their potential of causing foodborne illness. The risk factors were also identified on‐farm. This study determines the prevalence of this human foodborne agent in hogs and correlates these prevalence estimates with on‐farm management practices, such as antimicrobial use, size and location of the farm, source of feed, and source of water. As a result, the swine and pork product industry can evaluate if any current management practices are actual risk factors for Y. enterocolitica and the potential consequences to the pork producers.
Jourdan, A., Johnson, S., and Wesley, I.V. Development of a fluorogenic 5’nuclease PCR assay for the detection of the ail gene of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66:3570‐3755, 2000.
Bhaduri, S. Comparison of multiplex PCR, PCR‐ELISA and fluorogenic 5′ nuclease PCR assays for detection of plasmid‐bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in swine feces. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 16: 191‐196, 2002.
Bhaduri S, Wesley IV, and Bush, EJ. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in US swine. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71: 7117‐7121, 2005.
Bhaduri S, Wesley IV. Isolation and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica in swine feces based on the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s Swine 2000 study. J. Food Protection. 69:2107‐2112, 2006.
Wesley IV, S. Bhaduri and E. Bush. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in market weight hogs in the United States. J. Food Protection. 71: 1162‐1168, 2008.
Bhaduri S, IV Wesley, H Richards, A, Draughon, and M. Wallace. Clonality and antibiotic susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from US market weight hogs. Foodborne Pathogens and Diseases. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 6: 1‐6, 2009.
Enrichment Isolation and Detection of Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in Ground Pork and in Pork Chops: The methods of enrichment isolation and detection by PCR assay for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica were developed by the use of ground pork and pork chops and utilized as baseline surveys to determine the incidence of this bacterium in raw meats.
Bhaduri, S., Cottrell, B and Pickard, A. R. Use of a single procedure for selective enrichment, isolation and identification of plasmid‐bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica of various serotypes from pork samples. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63:1657‐1660, 1997.
Bhaduri, S. and Cottrell, B. Direct detection and isolation of plasmid‐bearing virulent serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica from various foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 63:4952‐4955, 1997.
Bhaduri, S. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from foods. Recent Developments in Microbiology, Volume 2. Ed. by S. G. Pandalai, Research Signpost, Trivandrum, India, pp. 139‐161, 1998. Bhaduri, S. and Cottrell, B. Screening and direct detection of plasmid‐bearing virulent serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica from various foods. International Congress on Yersinia, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1998.
Bhaduri, S. and Cottrell, B. A simplified sample preparation method from various foods for PCR detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in: a possible model for other food pathogens. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 12:79‐83, 1998.
Bhaduri, S. Food‐borne pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology, Volume 3. Ed. by R. Robinson, C. Batt and P. Patel, Academic Press Ltd, London, UK, pp. 2350‐2359, 1999.
Bhaduri. S. A comparison of sample preparation methods for PCR detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from ground pork using swabbing and slurry homogenate techniques. Molecular and Cellular Probes. 17:99‐105, 2003.
Survival and Isolation of Freeze‐Stressed of Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in Ground Pork and in Pork Chops:
The influence of freeze‐storage at on the enrichment, isolation, detection and survival of virulent Y. enterocolitica was assessed. Twelve weeks of frozen storage showed no evidence of freeze‐thaw injury. Freezing inhibited the isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica when present at low levels in pork chops, whereas in the ground pork the pathogen survived during extended storage at ‐20C. Therefore, since pathogenic Y. enterocolitica survive freezing, consumption of contaminated frozen pork products that are not sufficiently cooked can still cause illness. Freezing cannot replace sanitary production and handling of pork. This research furthers the understanding of the factors affecting the survival of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica exposed to cold stress.
Bhaduri, S. Survival, injury, and virulence of freeze‐stressed plasmid‐bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in ground pork. Foodborne Pathogens and Diseases. 2:353‐356, 2005.
Bhaduri, S. 2006. Enrichment, isolation, and virulence of freeze‐stressed plasmid‐bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in pork chops. J. Food Protection. 69:1983‐1985, 2006.
For detailed information Contact:
Saumya Bhaduri PhD
Microbial Food Safety Research Unit
USDA Agricultural Research Service
Eastern Regional Research Center
600 East Mermaid Lane
Wyndmoor, PA 19038
Phone: 215‐233 ‐ 6521