Effects of Sow Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on Sow and Litter Performance, Subsequent Weanling Pig Performance and Intestinal Development After an Immune Challenge
2004 University of Nebraska-Lincoln Swine Report. Sixteen sows were randomly assigned to two treatments: CON: Control corn-soybean meal diet; GLN: Cornsoybean meal diet + 2.5% crystalline glutamine. No differences (P > 0.10) between treatments were observed for sow weight loss, sow feed intake, or litter weight gain. Sow plasma glutamine concentration tended to be increased on days 7 and 21 (P < 0.13) in sows fed GLN. Milk glutamine concentration was increased (P < 0.08) on days 7 and 21 of lactation. However, suckling pig plasma glutamine concentration was not altered (P > 0.38) on day 21 by glutamine enriched milk consumption. On day 21, pigs were weaned to a common starter diet, sow treatment structure was maintained, and two additional treatments were imposed on weanling pigs and arranged in a 2 2 factorial: SAL: Saline injection on days 1 and 3; Lipopolysacharride (LPS ) 91 g lb BW-1 injection on days 1 and 3. Lipoplysacharride injection on days 1 and 3 reduced (P < 0.05) ADG during days 0 to 3, 3 to 7, and 7 to 14. Daily feed intake was reduced (P < 0.005) during days 0 to 3, 3 to 7, 7 to 14, and 14 to 21 by LPS injection. However, LPS increased ADG/ADFI during days 3 to 7 (P < 0.0001) and days 7 to 14 (P < 0.02). Progeny of sows fed CON diet gained 0.14 lb/d (P < 0.03) more weight during days 3 to 7, and consumed 0.33 lb/d more feed (P < 0.09) during days 7 to 14 versus progeny of GLN-fed sows. Small intestine length measured on day 3 was not affected (P > 0.23) by sow diet or injection type. Pigs injected with LPS had reduced (P < 0.01) small intestine empty weight. Progeny from sows that consumed CON had 10% greater empty weight on day 7 compared to progeny from sows fed GLN. Pigs injected with LPS had reduced (P < 0.01) small intestine weights on day 7 compared to pigs injected with SAL. Lipopolysacharride challenge reduced (P < 0.01) duodenum villus height. However, progeny of sows that consumed GLN had 12% greater (P < 0.05) villus height on day 3 compared to progeny of sows fed CON. Duodenum villus height on day 7 was similar in progeny from sows fed GLN and injected with SAL; whereas, progeny from sows fed GLN injected with SAL had reduced villus height (Diet LPS, P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that dietary glutamine increases sow milk glutamine concentration, but does not positively influence progeny growth performance during lactation or immediately following weaning during an immune challenge.