Risk Awareness Leads to Accident Prevention

Leonard Meador


Benefits of the Emergency Action Plan

  • Coordinated and quick mitigation of the emergency
  • Shows professionalism and improves creditability
  • Defines site and situation specific responses
  • Helps reduce negative social impacts


Stages of an Emergency

  1. Imminent emergency
  2. Emergency in progress
  3. Emergency discovered after the fact


Imminent Emergency

  • Containment liquid levels at or above freeboard
  • Inoperable liquid level sensors and alarms
  • Obstructed transfer lines and sumps
  • Non-protected entry to manure storage containments
  • Misplaced equipment guards or open electrical wiring


Emergency in Progress

  • Over topping or leaking manure containment
  • Actively leaking transfer line
  • Manure actively running or drifting off of the application site
  • Accident of transport vehicle on public use roadway
  • Witnessed personal injury or death due to known cause


Emergency Discovered After the Fact

  • Leak in foundation or berm of manure containment
  • Evidence of manure in tiles or water courses
  • Discovery of an un-witnessed personal injury accident
  • Death of workers or livestock due to unwitnessed causes


Evaluating Level of Risk

  • High Level
  • Moderate Level
  • Low Level


High Level of Risk – Immediate Action Required from Multi-Sources

  • Serious Personal Injury
  • Threat to Freshwater Supply
  • Spill Has Occurred on Public Use Right-away


Moderate Level of Risk

  • Minor Personal Injuries
  • Spill affects only private use property
  • Threat to flowing stream
  • Exposure to surface drainage


Low Level of Risk

  • No personal injuries
  • No immediate threat to public use areas
  • No immediate threat to surface or ground water
  • Emergency contained on owned or controlled property


Plan Development

  • Preplan
  • Training and Awareness
  • Post and Label
  • Review and Update



  1. Contacts on and off the site
  2. Actions to be taken
  3. Reporting procedures
  4. Record-keeping


Preplan — Contacts On and Off the Site

  • On-Site Emergency Response Personnel: Name, Home Phone, Cell Phone, Pager
  • Recovery Equipment Location: Sand bags (20-25), Absorbent pads (10-15), Backhoe, Dozer, Tractor and Vacuum Tank
  • Off-Site Emergency Response Personnel: Fire and Rescue, Ambulance, Sheriffs Department, State Enviro Agency, Local Enviro Agency


Preplan — Actions

  • Spills From Containment Breaches or Structure Failures
  • Spills During Pumping Operations
    • Shut off all pumping equipment
    • Build a sand bag dike to contain or divert spills away from tiles, watercourses, and roadways
    • Use absorbent pads to stop leaks in dike
    • Remove spill from diked area with vacuum tank
    • If larger dike is necessary use backhoe to reinforce with soil barrier.
  • Spills During Transportation on Public Roadways


Preplan — Reporting

  1. Spill Reporter Name
  2. Date and time
  3. Location of spill
  4. Pumping volume per minute
  5. Approximate amount of spill
  6. Application Rate (gal/acre)
  7. Application method
  8. Manure source
  9. Affected landowners
  10. How did the spill occur?
  11. What action was taken?
  12. Recommendations to prevent future spill of this kind.


Preplan — Record Keeping

  • Emergency Response Checklists
  • Training and Test Records
  • Actual Spill or Emergency Response Documentation
  • Agency Inspections or Plan Reviews


Training and Awareness – Who are the Response Leaders?

  1. Production Facility Owner
  2. Unit Manager
  3. Maintenance Manager
  4. Field Supervisor
  5. Fire Department
  6. Sheriffs Department
  7. Civil Defense


Training and Awareness – Spill Recovery Six Part Process

  1. Attend to Any Personal Injuries
  2. Stop the Manure Flow
  3. Contain the Spilled Manure
  4. Remove and Land Apply the Spilled Manure
  5. Make Any Needed Repairs
  6. Restore the Affected Landscape


Training and Awareness

  • Bilingual training where necessary
  • Initially train all new employees
  • Substitute and seasonal employees
  • Provide written Standard Operation Procedures


Post and Label – Post By All Phones

  • Emergency phone numbers
  • Directions to nearest town
  • E 911 address of facility
  • After-hours, weekends, and holidays phone numbers
  • Site diagram of all facilities and containments


Post and Label

  • Use pictures and large letters to label key items
  • Mark electrical, water, and gas shutoffs
  • Post building diagrams to show key shutoff points
  • Make emergency procedures available to all workers at all times


Review and Update

  1. Review emergency procedures seasonally
  2. Prepare record system to store all documentation
  3. Communicate with employees to add precautions they see
  4. Update emergency plans when any changes occur


Safety in the work place should be everyone’s concern.